Inhibition of γ-secretase worsens memory deficits in a genetically congruous mouse model of Danish dementia
© Tamayev and D'Adamio; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2012
Received: 30 January 2012
Accepted: 26 April 2012
Published: 26 April 2012
A mutation in the BRI2/ITM2b gene causes familial Danish dementia (FDD). BRI2 is an inhibitor of amyloid-β precursor protein (APP) processing, which is genetically linked to Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathogenesis. The FDD mutation leads to a loss of BRI2 protein and to increased APP processing. APP haplodeficiency and inhibition of APP cleavage by β-secretase rescue synaptic/memory deficits of a genetically congruous mouse model of FDD (FDDKI). β-cleavage of APP yields the β-carboxyl-terminal (β-CTF) and the amino-terminal-soluble APPβ (sAPPβ) fragments. γ-secretase processing of β-CTF generates Aβ, which is considered the main cause of AD. However, inhibiting Aβ production did not rescue the deficits of FDDKI mice, suggesting that sAPPβ/β-CTF, and not Aβ, are the toxic species causing memory loss.
Here, we have further analyzed the effect of γ-secretase inhibition. We show that treatment with a γ-secretase inhibitor (GSI) results in a worsening of the memory deficits of FDDKI mice. This deleterious effect on memory correlates with increased levels of the β/α-CTFs APP fragments in synaptic fractions isolated from hippocampi of FDDKI mice, which is consistent with inhibition of γ-secretase activity.
This harmful effect of the GSI is in sharp contrast with a pathogenic role for Aβ, and suggests that the worsening of memory deficits may be due to accumulation of synaptic-toxic β/α-CTFs caused by GSI treatment. However, γ-secretase cleaves more than 40 proteins; thus, the noxious effect of GSI on memory may be dependent on inhibition of cleavage of one or more of these other γ-secretase substrates. These two possibilities do not need to be mutually exclusive. Our results are consistent with the outcome of a clinical trial with the GSI Semagacestat, which caused a worsening of cognition, and advise against targeting γ-secretase in the therapy of AD. Overall, the data also indicate that FDDKI is a valuable mouse model to study AD pathogenesis and predict the clinical outcome of therapeutic agents for AD.
AD is characterized by amyloid deposition of Aβ peptides that derive from sequential cleavage of APP by β- and γ-secretases [1, 2]. Mutations in APP cause familial AD (FAD) . Familial dementia is also caused by mutations in genes that regulate APP processing. These include the PSEN1/2 genes, which code for the catalytic component of the γ-secretase, and the BRI2/ITM2b gene, whose protein product BRI2 binds APP and inhibits APP processing [3–10]. Although the familial cases caused by APP/PSEN mutations are classified as FAD and those caused by mutations in BRI2/ITM2b as Familial Danish or British dementias (FDD or FBD), recent evidence suggest that FBD and FDD share with FAD a pathogenic mechanism involving synaptic-toxic APP metabolites released during memory acquisition [11–16].
The prevailing pathogenic model for these dementias, the amyloid cascade hypothesis, posits that amyloid peptides, in forms of either amyloid plaques or oligomers, trigger dementia. In the case of AD, the amyloid peptide is Aβ, which is a part of APP and is also present in normal individuals; in the case of FDD and FBD the amyloidogenic peptides, called ADan and ABri respectively, are generated from the mutant BRI2 proteins [4, 10] and are not present in normal individuals. Notably, the FDD amyloid plaques contain both Aβ and ADan. Based on the amyloid cascade hypothesis , transgenic mice carrying mutant APP PSEN1/2 or BRI2/ITM2b are used to model these dementias, as over-expression is necessary to reproduce amyloidosis . However, over-expression of mutant genes produce harmful effects unrelated to AD leading to erroneous information concerning pathogenesis and therapy of human diseases.
To avoid artifacts of over-expression, we generated a knock-in mouse model of FDD (FDDKI) that, like FDD patients , carries a wild type Bri2/Itm2b allele and the other with the Danish mutation . FDDKI mice develop progressive synaptic and memory deficits due to loss of Bri2, but do not develop amyloidosis . BRI2 binds to APP and inhibits cleavage of APP by secretases [6–9]. Owing to the loss of BRI2, processing of APP is increased in FDD [11, 12]. Remarkably, memory and synaptic deficits of FDDKI mice require APP , and more specifically processing of APP by β-secretase during synaptic plasticity and memory acquisition [15, 16]. The two products of β-processing of APP are sAPPβ and β-CTF. The latter is processed by γ-secretase to yield Aβ. Contrary to the amyloid hypothesis of AD pathogenesis, inhibition of γ-secretase did not ameliorate synaptic/memory deficits of FDDKI mice [15, 16]. Overall, these results provide genetic evidence that APP and BRI2 functionally interact and that APP mediates FDD neuropathology, and suggest that sAPPβ and/or β-CTF, rather than Aβ, are the toxic species causing dementia. Here, we have evaluated further the role of γ-secretase in the pathogenesis of memory deficits of FDDKI mice.
Inhibiting γ-cleavage of APP does not rescue the memory deficit of FDDKImice
One week later, we tested the mice again to determine whether the GSI compound-E could rescue this amnesic phenotype. To this end, these same animals were injected 1 hr before the training with 1μl of a 3μM solution of compound-E in PBS. Again, both treated WT and FDDKI mice spent similar times exploring the two identical objects on day 1 (Figure 1c). One day later, mice were again injected with 1μl of a 3μM solution of compound-E in PBS 1 hr before the testing section with the new object. In agreement with what we have previously shown [15, 16] the GSI neither improved memory of FDDKI mice nor altered performance of WT animals (Figure 1d).
Inhibiting γ-secretase worsens the memory deficit of FDDKImice
Inhibiting γ-secretase causes accumulation of APP-COOH-terminal fragments
The accumulation of β-CTF and α-CTF caused by GSI treatment may prompt worsening of memory in FDDKI mice (Figure 5a, b). However, γ-secretase cleaves more than 40 substrates. Therefore, the toxic effect caused by GSI treatment may arise from inhibition of processing of other γ-secretase substrates (Figure 5c). These two hypotheses do not need to be mutually exclusive. Our data are concordant with two other set of evidence. First, a phase III clinical trial with Semagacestat, a γ-secretase inhibitor, was halted because Semagacestat rather than slowing disease progression caused a worsening of clinical measures of cognition and the ability to perform activities of daily living. Second, prolonged (8 days) treatment with GSIs produced no positive effects on memory deficits of older APP transgenic mice, and induced cognition deficits in both young APP transgenic mice and mice. These effects also correlated with accumulation of α/β-CTFs .
In conclusion, this study suggests that targeting Aβ production may be ineffective or, perhaps, detrimental. Importantly, our results once more show that our FDDKI model is useful to study pathogenic mechanisms of dementia and to test in preclinical studies the efficacy of candidate disease modifying drugs for AD.
Material and methods
Mice were generated and maintained at the Animal facility of the Albert Einstein College of Medicine. Mice were handled according to the Ethical Guidelines for Treatment of Laboratory Animals of Albert Einstein College of Medicine. The procedures were described and approved in animal protocol number 200404.
Compound-e was purchased from (Calbiochem).
Brain cannulation and injections
Dr. Xiaosong Li at the Animal Physiology core of the Albert Einstein College of Medicine surgically implanted the cannula. Compound-E or PBS was delivered at the rate of 1 ml per minute using a CMA 400 syringe pump.
Open field and novel object recognition
The mice were acclimated to the testing room for 30 min after being moved. Each mouse was placed into a 40 cm X 40 cm open field chamber with opaque walls, 2ft high. Each mouse was allowed to habituate to the normal open field box for 10 min, and repeated again 24 h later, in which the video tracking system (HVS 2020; HVS Image) quantified various locomotor parameters: total distance travelled, number of entries into, distance travelled in, and time spent in the centre of the locomotor arena. As previously reported , open field studies showed that FDDKI mice have no defects in habituation, sedation, risk assessment and anxiety-like behavior in novel environments.
Novel object recognition began 24 h after the second open field session, and was performed as previously described [13, 25]. Briefly, NOR consisted of two sessions, either 24 h (Figure 1) or 4 h (Figures 2 and 3) apart. In the first session, the mice were placed into the open field chamber with two identical, non-toxic objects, 12 cm from the back and sidewalls of the open field box, and 16 cm apart from each other. A 8 min session, in which the time exploring each object was recorded; an area 2 cm2 surrounding the object is defined such that nose entries within 2 cm of the object were recorded as time exploring the object. The animal was then returned to its home cage, and either 24 or 4 h later, placed into the open field box again. This time, there were two new objects, one identical to the previous objects, and one novel object. The mice were given another 6 min to explore, and the amount of time exploring each object was recorded. Mice that spent <7 s exploring the objects were omitted from the analysis . Results were recorded as an object discrimination ratio (ODR), which is calculated by dividing the time the mice spent exploring a novel object, divided by the total amount of time exploring the two objects.
Synaptosomes preparations and Western blot analysis
For synaptic preparations, isolated hippocampi were homogenized (w/v= 10 mg tissue/100ml buffer) in Hepes-sucrose buffer (20 mM Hepes/NaOH pH 7.4, 1 mM EDTA, 1 mM EGTA, 0.25 M sucrose) supplemented with protease and phosphatase inhibitors. Homogenates were centrifuged at 800 g for 10 min. The supernatant (S1) was separated into supernatant (S2) and pellet (P2) by spinning at 9,200 g for 15 min. P2 contains the crude synaptosomal fraction. Synaptosomes fractions were analyzed by western blot using the following antibodies: α-APP (22C11/Chemicon) to detect mAPP and imAPP; α-APPCTF (Invitrogen/Zymed) to detect α–CTF and β-CTF; α-BRI2 (Santa Cruz) to detect mBri2.
Image scanning and analysis
WB images were scanned with Epson perfection 3200 Photo scanner and were analyzed with NIH ImageJ software.
All data are shown as mean s.e.m. Statistical tests included two-way ANOVA for repeated measures and t-test when appropriate.
Robert Tamayev and Luciano D’Adamio contributed equally to this work
This work was supported by grants from the Alzheimer’s Association (IIRG-09-129984 and ZEN-11-201425 to L.D.), the Edward N. & Della L. Thome Memorial Foundation grant (to L.D.) and the National Institutes of Health (NIH; R01AG033007 to L.D.).
- De Strooper B, Vassar R, Golde T: The secretases: enzymes with therapeutic potential in Alzheimer disease. Nat Rev Neurol. 2010, 6: 99-107. 10.1038/nrneurol.2009.218.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Cole SL, Vassar R: The Alzheimer’s disease beta-secretase enzyme, BACE1. Mol Neurodegener. 2007, 2: 22-10.1186/1750-1326-2-22.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Bertram L, Lill CM, Tanzi RE: The genetics of Alzheimer disease: back to the future. Neuron. 2010, 68: 270-281. 10.1016/j.neuron.2010.10.013.View ArticlePubMed
- Vidal R, Frangione B, Rostagno A, Mead S, Revesz T, Plant G, Ghiso J: A stop-codon mutation in the BRI gene associated with familial British dementia. Nature. 1999, 399: 776-781. 10.1038/21637.View ArticlePubMed
- St George-Hyslop PH, Petit A: Molecular biology and genetics of Alzheimer’s disease. C R Biol. 2005, 328: 119-130. 10.1016/j.crvi.2004.10.013.View ArticlePubMed
- Matsuda S, Giliberto L, Matsuda Y, Davies P, McGowan E, Pickford F, Ghiso J, Frangione B, D’Adamio L: The familial dementia BRI2 gene binds the Alzheimer gene amyloid-beta precursor protein and inhibits amyloid-beta production. J Biol Chem. 2005, 280: 28912-28916. 10.1074/jbc.C500217200.View ArticlePubMed
- Fotinopoulou A, Tsachaki M, Vlavaki M, Poulopoulos A, Rostagno A, Frangione B, Ghiso J, Efthimiopoulos S: BRI2 interacts with amyloid precursor protein (APP) and regulates amyloid beta (Abeta) production. J Biol Chem. 2005, 280: 30768-30772. 10.1074/jbc.C500231200.View ArticlePubMed
- Matsuda S, Matsuda Y, Snapp EL, D’Adamio L: Maturation of BRI2 generates a specific inhibitor that reduces APP processing at the plasma membrane and in endocytic vesicles. Neurobiol Aging. 2011, 32: 1400-1408. 10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2009.08.005.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Matsuda S, Giliberto L, Matsuda Y, McGowan EM, D’Adamio L: BRI2 inhibits amyloid beta-peptide precursor protein processing by interfering with the docking of secretases to the substrate. J Neurosci. 2008, 28: 8668-8676. 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2094-08.2008.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Vidal R, Revesz T, Rostagno A, Kim E, Holton JL, Bek T, Bojsen-Moller M, Braendgaard H, Plant G, Ghiso J, et al: A decamer duplication in the 3′ region of the BRI gene originates an amyloid peptide that is associated with dementia in a Danish kindred. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000, 97: 4920-4925. 10.1073/pnas.080076097.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Matsuda S, Tamayev R, D’Adamio L: Increased AbetaPP processing in familial Danish dementia patients. J Alzheimers Dis. 2011, 27: 385-391.PubMed CentralPubMed
- Tamayev R, Matsuda S, Giliberto L, Arancio O, D’Adamio L: APP heterozygosity averts memory deficit in knockin mice expressing the Danish dementia BRI2 mutant. EMBO J. 2011, 30: 2501-2509. 10.1038/emboj.2011.161.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Tamayev R, Matsuda S, Fa M, Arancio O, D’Adamio L: Danish dementia mice suggest that loss of function and not the amyloid cascade causes synaptic plasticity and memory deficits. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010, 107: 20822-20827. 10.1073/pnas.1011689107.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Tamayev R, Giliberto L, Li W, d’Abramo C, Arancio O, Vidal R, D’Adamio L: Memory deficits due to familial British dementia BRI2 mutation are caused by loss of BRI2 function rather than amyloidosis. J Neurosci. 2010, 30: 14915-14924. 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3917-10.2010.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Tamayev R, Matsuda S, Arancio O, D’Adamio L: beta- but not gamma-secretase proteolysis of APP causes synaptic and memory deficits in a mouse model of dementia. EMBO Mol Med. 2011, 4: 171-179.View Article
- Tamayev R, Matsuda S, D’Adamio L: beta - but not gamma-secretase proteolysis of APP causes synaptic and memory deficits in a mouse model of dementia. Mol Neurodegener. 2012, 7 (Suppl 1): L9-10.1186/1750-1326-7-S1-S9.PubMed CentralView Article
- Hardy J, Selkoe DJ: The amyloid hypothesis of Alzheimer’s disease: progress and problems on the road to therapeutics. Science. 2002, 297: 353-356. 10.1126/science.1072994.View ArticlePubMed
- Jucker M: The benefits and limitations of animal models for translational research in neurodegenerative diseases. Nat Med. 2010, 16: 1210-1214. 10.1038/nm.2224.View ArticlePubMed
- Giliberto L, Matsuda S, Vidal R, D’Adamio L: Generation and Initial Characterization of FDD Knock In Mice. PLoS One. 2009, 4: e7900-10.1371/journal.pone.0007900.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Saura CA, Choi SY, Beglopoulos V, Malkani S, Zhang D, Shankaranarayana Rao BS, Chattarji S, Kelleher RJ, Kandel ER, Duff K, et al: Loss of presenilin function causes impairments of memory and synaptic plasticity followed by age-dependent neurodegeneration. Neuron. 2004, 42: 23-36. 10.1016/S0896-6273(04)00182-5.View ArticlePubMed
- Shen J, Kelleher RJ: The presenilin hypothesis of Alzheimer’s disease: evidence for a loss-of-function pathogenic mechanism. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007, 104: 403-409. 10.1073/pnas.0608332104.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Zhang C, Wu B, Beglopoulos V, Wines-Samuelson M, Zhang D, Dragatsis I, Sudhof TC, Shen J: Presenilins are essential for regulating neurotransmitter release. Nature. 2009, 460: 632-636. 10.1038/nature08177.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- De Strooper B: Loss-of-function presenilin mutations in Alzheimer disease. Talking Point on the role of presenilin mutations in Alzheimer disease. EMBO Rep. 2007, 8: 141-146. 10.1038/sj.embor.7400897.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Mitani Y, Yarimizu J, Saita K, Uchino H, Akashiba H, Shitaka Y, Ni K, Matsuoka N: Differential Effects between gamma-Secretase Inhibitors and Modulators on Cognitive Function in Amyloid Precursor Protein-Transgenic and Nontransgenic Mice. J Neurosci. 2012, 32: 2037-2050. 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.4264-11.2012.View ArticlePubMed
- Bevins RA, Besheer J: Object recognition in rats and mice: a one-trial non-matching-to-sample learning task to study ‘recognition memory’. Nat Protoc. 2006, 1: 1306-1311. 10.1038/nprot.2006.205.View ArticlePubMed
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.