Sustained, neuron-specific IKK/NF-κB activation generates a selective neuroinflammatory response promoting local neurodegeneration with aging
© Maqbool et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2013
Received: 25 April 2013
Accepted: 9 October 2013
Published: 12 October 2013
Increasing evidence indicates that neuroinflammation is a critical factor contributing to the progression of various neurodegenerative diseases. The IKK/NF-κB signalling system is a central regulator of inflammation, but it also affects neuronal survival and differentiation. A complex interplay between different CNS resident cells and infiltrating immune cells, which produce and respond to various inflammatory mediators, determines whether neuroinflammation is beneficial or detrimental. The IKK/NF-κB system is involved in both production of and responses to these mediators, although the precise contribution depends on the cell type as well as the cellular context, and is only partially understood. Here we investigated the specific contribution of neuronal IKK/NF-κB signalling on the regulation of neuroinflammatory processes and its consequences. To address this issue, we established and analysed a conditional gain-of-function mouse model that expresses a constitutively active allele of IKK2 in principal forebrain neurons (IKK2nCA). Proinflammatory gene and growth factor expression, histopathology, microgliosis, astrogliosis, immune cell infiltration and spatial learning were assessed at different timepoints after persistent canonical IKK2/NF-κB activation.
In contrast to other cell types and organ systems, chronic IKK2/NF-κB signalling in forebrain neurons of adult IKK2nCA animals did not cause a full-blown inflammatory response including infiltration of immune cells. Instead, we found a selective inflammatory response in the dentate gyrus characterized by astrogliosis, microgliosis and Tnf-α upregulation. Furthermore, downregulation of the neurotrophic factor Bdnf correlated with a selective and progressive atrophy of the dentate gyrus and a decline in hippocampus-dependent spatial learning. Neuronal degeneration was associated with increased Fluoro-jade staining, but lacked activation of apoptosis. Remarkably, neuronal loss could be partially reversed when chronic IKK2/NF-κB signalling was turned off and Bdnf expression was restored.
Our results demonstrate that persistent IKK2/NF-κB signalling in forebrain neurons does not induce overall neuroinflammation, but elicits a selective inflammatory response in the dentate gyrus accompanied by decreased neuronal survival and impaired learning and memory. Our findings further suggest that chronic activation of neuronal IKK2/NF-κB signalling, possibly as a consequence of neuroinflammatory conditions, is able to induce apoptosis-independent neurodegeneration via paracrine suppression of Bdnf synthesis.
KeywordsNeuroinflammation Neurodegeneration NF-κB IKK2 Bdnf Spatial learning and memory Dentate gyrus
Neuroinflammation is a common hallmark of several CNS disorders, which is characterized by the upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines such as Tnf, Ccl2 and Cxcl10 as well as the infiltration of activated immune cells .
The activation of the NF-κB family of transcription factors is a key step in the regulation of inflammatory and immune responses. However, these proteins also regulate gene expression in a variety of other physiological processes like cell proliferation, differentiation and survival, as well as specific CNS functions including learning and memory . In resting cells, NF-κB dimers are sequestered in the cytosol by inhibitory proteins of the IκB family. The crucial step in NF-κB activation is the phosphorylation of IκB proteins by the activating IκB kinase complex. IKK2 is the critical kinase subunit inducing the canonical signalling pathway, which is essentially involved in the regulation of inflammation. Phosphorylation of inhibitory IκB proteins initiates their ubiquitination and subsequent proteosomal degradation, followed by the release and nuclear translocation of active NF-κB dimers, which then induce the expression of NF-κB target genes [3–5].
Members of the IKK/NF-κB system are widely expressed in the nervous system and different factors stimulate NF-κB activation in the CNS, including damage-associated molecular patterns, pathogen-associated molecular patterns, cytokines, chemokines, neurotransmitters, neurotrophic factors and neurotoxins. NF-κB is activated both under physiological conditions, e.g. by synaptic activity, as well as in pathological conditions [6–8]. Previous studies reported that the IKK/NF-κB signalling system is deregulated in various neuroinflammatory conditions as Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Huntington’s disease (HD), stroke, hydrocephalus and schizophrenia [9–15]. Depending on the cell type and pathophysiological context, both protective and deleterious roles of NF-κB signalling were found in CNS diseases, e.g. in ischemic injury [16, 17].
We have previously shown that suppression of IKK/NF-κB signalling in neurons reduces infarct formation in an animal model of stroke. Vice versa ectopic activation of IKK2 in a similar context increases the infarct size after cerebral ischemia . These findings indicate a central role of neuronal NF-κB in the regulation of cell survival in acute stroke pathogenesis.
In order to characterize the detailed role of neuronal NF-κB in the pathogenesis of chronic neurodegenerative disorders, we analysed the consequences of persistent NF-κB activation in neurons using the IKK2nCA model. As NF-κB activation is sufficient to induce strong inflammatory processes in various cell types and tissues [11, 18–20], we particularly asked whether chronic NF-κB activation in neurons is sufficient to drive a neuroinflammatory response on its own and if so, what are the pathological consequences.
Unexpectedly, IKK2nCA animals did not show massive signs of neuroinflammation such as prominent proinflammatory cytokine expression and infiltration of immune cells. Interestingly, they exhibited downregulation of the neurotrophic factor Bdnf, which correlates with an impairment of cognitive functions and degeneration of the dentate gyrus.
Conditional expression of IKK2-CA in principal forebrain neurons
To determine the transgene expression kinetics after DOX withdrawal in IKK2nCA mice, we first analysed the activity of the co-expressed reporter gene luciferase using in vivo bioluminescence measurement (IVIS). We found a CNS-restricted luciferase activity, beginning within the first week of DOX withdrawal, which was then stable for at least 8 months (Figure 1B and C), indicating a rapid and robust transgene expression. To further analyse the transgene expression pattern and its detailed spatial resolution, we measured luciferase activity in protein lysates from various brain regions and control organs. As expected from the forebrain specific expression pattern of Camk2a, luciferase activity depicted transgene expression in the hippocampus, cortex, striatum and olfactory bulb, but no or only a minor expression in other brain regions and peripheral organs (Figure 1D). Transgene expression was confirmed in the hippocampus, striatum, and cortex by protein immunoblot analysis (Figure 1E).
We next investigated cell type specificity of transgene expression by immunofluorescence co-staining with the neuronal marker NeuN. As shown for the hippocampal CA1 region, expression of IKK2nCA was restricted to NeuN positive neurons (Figure 1F). To assess the functional consequences of IKK2-CA expression, subcellular localisation of the NF-κB subunit p65/RelA was analysed. RelA staining revealed a strong nuclear reactivity in neurons of the DG (Figure 1G) and of the CA1 region, cortex and striatum of IKK2nCA mice (see Additional file 1) indicating neuronal NF-κB activation in these animals. Moreover, IKK activity was elevated in striatal lysates of IKK2nCA mice as measured by the phosphorylation level of the IKK substrate GST-IκBα (Figure 1H).
IKK2nCAmice do not show prominent signs of neuroinflammation
Since neuroinflammation involves the activation of microglia, we assessed their status in different forebrain regions by Iba1 immunostaining. Consistent with the results seen in Figure 2A, Iba1 staining only revealed selective microgliosis in the dentate gyrus (DG), whereas other IKK2-CA-expressing brain regions like cortex and the hippocampal CA1-region lacked microglial activation at any timepoint analysed (Figure 2B-E). Astrocytes also get activated under inflammatory conditions, a process that is characterized by hypertrophic astroglia and an upregulation of the astrocyte-specific intermediate filament protein GFAP. Similar to the previous findings, astrogliosis was detected only in the DG of IKK2nCA mice (Figure 2F, G). We could not detect infiltration of CD45+ immune cells and upregulation of Lcn2, an inflammatory marker gene (Additional file 3) found in a different neuroinflammatory mouse model with immune cell infiltration . Therefore we conclude that IKK2-mediated NF-κB activation in excitatory forebrain neurons is not sufficient to induce a full-blown inflammatory response.
Persistent IKK/NF-κB signalling interferes with hippocampus dependent spatial learning
Chronic IKK/NF-κB signalling reduces Bdnf expression in the forebrain of IKK2nCAmice
IKK2nCAmice develop a granular cell layer specific degeneration of the dentate gyrus
We then asked whether the decreased Bdnf levels have any effect on neuronal survival and analysed the hippocampi of age-matched control and IKK2nCA mice by cresyl violet staining.
Bdnf is able to promote neuronal survival via the expression of Bcl-2 . In line with the pronounced loss of neurons in the DG, we detected a downregulation of Bcl2 and another important pro-survival gene, Bcl2l1 (Bcl-xL) at 9 months of age (Figure 5E). A subregion-specific qRT-PCR analysis demonstrated a reduction of Bcl2l1 both in the DG and CA of IKK2nCA mice whereas Bcl2 expression was only tendentially decreased in this analysis (Additional file 7E).
Replenishment of DG neurons by blocking IKK2-CA expression
To investigate potential mechanisms underlying the structural reconstitution of the DG, we performed Ki67 staining, which indicated an increase in Ki67-immunoreactive cells in the DG of DOX treated IKK2nCA mice (Additional file 8). This implies that IKK2-CA transgene inactivation and subsequent regain of Bdnf expression enhances adult neurogenesis in the GCL of the DG.
The IKK/NF-κB signalling system is proposed to be critically involved in the pathogenesis of various neurological diseases . On the one hand, it is well characterized as a central regulator of inflammatory responses by controlling the expression of multiple proinflammatory acting genes [3, 22]. On the other hand, IKK/NF-κB signalling is crucially involved in neuronal differentiation and various CNS functions [6–8]. However, due to its complex regulation in different cell types and diverse responses to different physiological and pathological conditions, the precise function of the IKK/NF-κB system in CNS physiology and pathology is only partially understood.
Former studies suggested an ambivalent role of the IKK/NF-κB system in the pathogenesis of neurological disorders [8, 43]. Due to its proinflammatory function, NF-κB activation is able to trigger neuronal dysfunction, aging and cell death, thereby increasing severity of CNS diseases [8, 11, 44, 45]. In contrast, NF-κB activation can also mediate neuroprotection [6, 8, 46]. Previously, we found that IKK2/NF-κB activation in neurons increases tissue damage in a mouse model of stroke, probably by enhancing the overall neuroinflammatory process elicited by this acute insult . Therefore, we wanted to further investigate the role of IKK2-mediated neuron-specific NF-κB activation in the induction of neuroinflammatory responses using the IKK2nCA model. We hypothesized that constitutive IKK2 activation in neurons is sufficient to induce inflammation, as it was demonstrated in several non-neural cell types as well as in astrocytes [11, 18–20, 23]. However, with the exception of microgliosis and astrogliosis observed in the DG, neuron-specific IKK2 activation did not result in a prominent inflammatory phenotype including infiltration of immune cells. Consistently, typical proinflammatory NF-κB target genes like Ccl2, Tnf, Ptgs2, Lcn2 and Cxcl10 that are highly expressed in other inflammatory conditions are either moderately or not induced in the IKK2nCA model. This argues for a specific function of IKK2/NF-κB signalling in neurons.
What could be the reason for this unexpected response? As NF-κB is activated by synaptic signalling, such kind of NF-κB activation in neurons would already create a proinflammatory environment under the physiological conditions of neurotransmission. Vice versa, inflammation-mediated NF-κB activation in neurons would lead to functional conflicts like deregulation of NF-κB-mediated neurite outgrowth and synaptic plasticity. Therefore, a functional separation of neuronal IKK/NF-κB signalling versus inflammatory IKK/NF-κB signalling in other cells could be of physiological advantage. Several studies showed important functions of NF-κB in neuronal differentiation, including neurite outgrowth, formation and remodelling of synaptic connections, axogenesis and neuronal function, e.g. hippocampal learning and memory formation [6, 26, 28, 47–50]. These studies are mainly based on experimental approaches inhibiting the IKK/NF-κB signalling system in neurons, therefore it could be anticipated that neuronal IKK/NF-κB activation might result in a phenotype that improves neuronal survival and cognitive capabilities. However, this idea appears to be in stark contrast to our findings. One plausible explanation for this discrepancy could be the duration of IKK/NF-κB signalling. In our model we induce permanent IKK/NF-κB activation over weeks, whereas in the physiological context of learning and memory rather a transient or repetitive activation is known to occur which is e.g., elicited by the neurotransmitter glutamate, known to induce NF-κB in synaptic signalling [51, 52]. As excessive glutamate signalling results in excitotoxic cell death , we can speculate that the constitutive NF-κB activation in our model is probably detrimental to the DG neurons. Interestingly, pharmacological inhibition of IKK2 was able to block NMDA-induced excitotoxic cell death in hippocampal neurons and oligodendrocytes . In line with the view that especially a transient NF-κB activation kinetic improves neuronal differentiation, Russo et al. shows that stereotactic application of a virus expressing IKK2-CA to the nucleus accumbens leads to spine formation within a short time of 3 days .
The adequate function of the adult dentate gyrus depends on both healthy mature granule cells as well as ongoing neurogenesis  and NF-κB was shown to be critically involved in different aspects of adult neurogenesis using loss-of-function approaches [28, 56]. Since we only see neurodegeneration in the DG, a hypothesis might be that constitutive IKK2 activity also interferes with neurogenesis, which then results in a depletion of neurons in the GCL. However, a roughly 50% reduction in the cell count at 9M is difficult to explain solely by blockade of ongoing adult neurogenesis in the IKK2nCA model but rather suggests active neurodegeneration. Furthermore, we could observe increased evels of Ki67-positive cells upon transgene inactivation arguing for elevated neurogenesis that may account for an active regeneration process of the DG rather than simple prevention of further neurodegeneration.
Imielski et al.  showed that the structural degeneration of the DG depends on apoptotic cell death, which was not detected in our model as measured by cleaved caspase-3 and TUNEL assay (Additional file 5). Instead, we could identify degenerating neurons in the DG but not in other brain regions by Fluoro-jade staining suggesting that IKK2-CA induces cell death but this cell death is independent of apoptosis or is due to a very slow rate of apoptosis that may escape detection. So far it remains largely open why this degeneration process is specific to the DG. However, our findings implicate that a combination of Bdnf decrease and Tnf increase (and possibly changes in other so far unkown factors) may account for the selective neurodegeneration of the dentate gyrus in the IKK2nCA model. The structural restoration of the dentate gyrus after transgene inactivation in both models implies that fine balanced levels of NF-κB are required for appropriate neuronal survival and homeostasis in this brain region. Therefore, reactivation of the IKK/NF-κB system for therapeutic measures of neuro-regeneration in the context of dementia-associated diseases as suggested by Imielski et al.  is apparently critical and surely dose-dependent.
The neurodegenerative effect of constitutive IKK2 signalling could be due to the composition of the activated NF-κB dimers. In IKK2nCA mice the canonical NF-κB pathway is active, most likely leading to the nuclear translocation of p65 containing dimers that are found to regulate apoptosis associated genes . Also, there might be an under-representation of c-Rel containing dimers, which are known to promote neuronal survival by enhancing Bcl2l1 transcription . Corresponding to this, a downregulation of pro-survival genes like Bcl2 and Bcl2l1 was detected at older age in IKK2nCA mice, although both of these are regulated by NF-κB [58, 59]. Moreover, the decreased Bdnf expression in IKK2nCA mice can be proposed as a potential mechanism that interferes with neuronal survival  because it also correlates with a decline in Bcl2 and Bcl2l1 levels . Bdnf is well known to regulate cognitive tasks, synaptic plasticity and neuronal survival by activating its receptor TrkB [39, 41, 60, 61] and its expression is compromised in brain disorders as AD, HD, Rett syndrome and schizophrenia [62, 63]. Thus, the reduced levels of Bdnf and Bdnf-regulated AMPA receptors might attribute to the impaired hippocampal learning and the atrophy of the DG observed in our model.
Nevertheless, other factors may also contribute to the impaired learning and atrophy of the dentate gyrus. There is the possibility that the microgliosis and astrogliosis observed in the DG are sufficient to cause the neurodegeneration in IKK2nCA mice [64, 65]. Together with the elevated Tnf levels, such kind of inflammatory processes may influence learning and memory as well as neuronal survival. This might contribute to the observed phenotype, although the importance of low-grade neuroinflammation for learning and memory and neurodegeneration is still controversially discussed .
What is the underlying molecular mechanism resulting in reduced Bdnf, Bcl2 and Bcl2l1 expression in IKK2nCA mice? The observed downregulation for Bdnf is rather surprising, as Bdnf is an NF-κB target gene in astrocytes  and would therefore expected to be rather upregulated in neurons, too. Although we did not investigate the mechanism behind this repression of Bdnf in IKK2nCA mice, previous studies identified a similar kind of downregulation of target genes by NF-κB, e.g. in the case of hypoxia, Tnf-dependent EAAT2 expression, or in the regulation of anti-apoptotic genes after treatment of cells with DNA-damaging agents [68–70]. Campbell et al. showed that the cytotoxic stimuli like ultraviolet light (UV-C), and daunorubicin, downregulated the expression of anti-apoptotic NF-κB target genes like Bcl2, Bcl2l1, Xiap and A20, thus providing the possibility that canonical NF-κB activation may account for induction and repression of target genes depending on the presence of coactivators, given cell type and induction mechanism . There is also the possibility that NF-κB mediated changes in epigenetic gene regulation may affect Bdnf expression [71–73]. Moreover, IKK2 has been previously described to phosphorylate Bcl-xL, a mechanism associated with reduced expression of this gene in stressed, post-mitotic neurons . A recent publication by Zhang et al.  addressed the role of IKK2/NF-κB signalling in the hypothalamus, which increases with aging and mediates suppression of hypothalamic-gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH1) expression finally promoting systemic aging. They found that elevated IKK2 and NF-κB activity induces cJun/cfos and PKC levels, which are able to inhibit Gnrh1 promoter activity. This mode of NF-κB-mediated inhibition of gene expression might also account for NF-κB-mediated Bdnf repression since Bdnf expression is known to be regulated by multiple promoters.
More importantly, the IKK2-CA transgene and Bdnf expression pattern do not coincide very well in the DG of IKK2nCA mice (Figure 6D). Bdnf expression is located to the hilus region whereas IKK2-CA protein is detected in GCL neurons. In support of this, GABAergic interneurons present in the hilus are devoid of Camk2a expression thereby excluding Camk2a-driven transgene expression in these neurons . This strongly argues for a scenario that IKK2-CA mediated NF-κB activation does not directly influence Bdnf expression. Rather, a so far unknown factor/s released by IKK2-CA positive neurons suppresses Bdnf production in a paracrine manner in the vicinity of the hilus, a process that necessarily does not depend on NF-κB-mediated gene regulation.
Notably, recent work by Han et al. reported that the Camk2a-tTA transgene, also used in the present study to drive IKK2-CA expression, itself exhibits a degenerating effect on the neurons which was not recognized by the scientific community for many years. Moreover, they observed that this degeneration was permanently rescued by administration of DOX during the first 6 weeks of life . As the IKK2nCA animals were treated with DOX up to the age of 4 weeks, most likely, we also avoid the tTA-induced degeneration. Consistent with that, the Camk2a-tTA-induced neurodegeneration gets obvious already at the age of 2 months, whereas a IKK2nCA animals do not show atrophy up to the age of 3 months rather develop degeneration between 3 and 6 month age periods. Furthermore, IKK2nCA animals were bred in pure NMRI background, an outbred model, which is different from the analysed hybrid strains sensitive for tTA-induced degeneration.
In the present study we demonstrate that chronic activation of IKK2/NF-κB signalling in excitatory forebrain neurons does not induce a self-propagating inflammatory response including immune cell infiltration, as observed in other model systems. Instead, it interferes with spatial learning concomitant with decrease in Bdnf levels and neurodegeneration in the DG. Furthermore, we propose a novel mechanism of IKK/NF-κB dependent regulation of neuronal homeostasis and function, in particular a paracrine downregulation of Bdnf expression leading to impaired learning capabilities and dentate gyrus degeneration. Remarkably, our reverse remodelling results clearly show the high structural plasticity of the DG even in elderly animals. To what extent Bdnf depletion by enhanced neuronal IKK2/NF-κB activation is relevant to the pathogenesis of neurological disorders is an interesting question arising from this study, which with further elucidation can provide valuable insights to develop therapeutic strategies for neurodegenerative diseases.
Materials and methods
Mice were kept in a specific pathogen-free (SPF) animal facility at University of Ulm. Double transgenic mice (CaMK2a-tTA x luciferase-(tetO)7-CA-IKK2) were generated by directly crossing CaMK2a-tTA mice with single transgenic mice carrying a luciferase-(tetO)7-IKK2-CA transgene. The latter mice have a bidirectional promoter (tetO)7 which regulates the expression of luciferase reporter gene as well as IKK2-CA . Both single transgenic mouse lines were bred on the NMRI background. In order to avoid any interference with brain development, inactivation of transgene expression was carried out by administration of DOX (0.1 g/l, MP Biomedicals) in 1% sucrose, in the drinking water to the dams during pregnancy, and to pups until 4 weeks of age. As control animals usually (tetO)7-IKK2-CA single transgenic littermates were used. Genotyping was made by PCR.
All animal experiments were performed in compliance with the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals published by the US National Institutes of Health and the German Animal Protection Act and was approved by the Regierungspräsidium Tübingen, Germany that is the responsible government agency for animal rights.
In vivo bioluminescence assay
For the detection of transgene, the tissue samples were snap frozen in liquid nitrogen, and the extracts were prepared by homogenizing the pulverized tissue in TNT extraction buffer. Luciferase reporter assay was performed as previously described .
Native tissue protein extracts were prepared as described previously . Equal amounts (50 μg) of total proteins were resolved on SDS-PAGE gels and transferred to nitrocellulose membranes by a standard western blot protocol. Membranes were then blocked with 5% non-fat dry milk in TBS buffer for 1 h at room temperature. Incubation with primary antibody (see below) was performed in blocking solution overnight at 4°C or for 2 h at room temperature. After washing with TBS, incubation with the HRP coupled secondary antibody was performed for 1 h at room temperature.
Membranes were exposed to ECL detection reagent from Invitrogen for the detection of signals. The “Intelligent Dark Box” (Fuji) was used to reveal the luminescence signals.
Histology and immunostaining
For the histopathological analysis, animals were perfused with PBS and 4% PFA and decapitated. Brains were then fixed by immersion in 4% PFA (3-4 h at room temperature), dehydrated, embedded in paraffin, and cut to 7 μm thick coronal sections using the microtome Microm HM355S (Thermo Scientific, Waldorf, Germany). For making cryosections, the brains were frozen as described by  and the frozen brains were sectioned to 8 μm thick slices using cryotome Leica CM1900 (Leica Microsystems, Wetzlar, Germany). To identify the morphology of brain, nissl staining was performed with the paraffin sections. For immunofluorescent staining, after rehydration, heat mediated antigen retrieval was performed with sodium citrate (10 mM, pH 6, 0.05% Tween 20) or Tris-EDTA (10 mM Tris, 1 mM EDTA, pH 9, 0.05% Tween 20) and for full permeabilization sections were incubated with 0.5% Triton X-100 for 30 min. Sections were washed with PBS and blocked with 5% BSA with Fc Block antibody (BD Pharmingen, dilution 1:100) for 1h. Incubation with the primary antibodies (in 5% BSA) was performed overnight at 4°C, secondary antibodies were applied for 1h at room temperature with DAPI for nuclear counterstaining. For GFAP, cleaved caspase-3 and CD45 staining, the cryosections from natively frozen brains were fixed with cold methanol (-20°C). Blocking and staining was performed as described above. Fluorescence images were acquired with the Zeiss Axiovert 200 M microscope with filters for DAPI, FITC/Alexa Fluor 488, and TexasRed/Alexa Fluor 568/594 and the Zeiss Axiovision software. For every channel exposure times were adjusted separately and kept same for the complete session. Adjustment of contrast and brightness was performed distinctly for each channel, but equally in all compared pictures.
For immunohistochemistry, paraffin sections were treated with 3% hydrogen per oxide, heat mediated antigen retrieval was performed with citric acid buffer (pH 6.0), washed with TBS and blocked with 5% BSA for 1h at room temperature. Afterwards, slides were incubated with the primary antibodies against Iba1, RelA or Bdnf over night at room temperature. Biotinylated rabbit secondary antibody was applied for 30 min at room temperature, subsequently slides were treated with streptavidin HRP and the signals for Iba-1 were obtained using DAB, whereas by AEC reagent for RelA and Bdnf.
Fluoro-jade B staining was carried out with the cryosection of animals perfused with 4%PFA as described by .
Images were obtained by Leica CTR5500 microscope.
Antibodies for immunostaining and immunoblotting
Goat anti-human IKK2 (sc-7329), rabbit anti-RelA (sc-372), rabbit anti-Bdnf (sc-546), rabbit anti-Erk2 (sc-154) and HRP-conjugated goat anti-rabbit or donkey anti-goat were obtained from Santa Cruz Biotechnology. Mouse anti-NeuN from Millipore (MAB 377), rabbit anti-GFAP from Abcam (Ab56777), rabbit anti-Cleaved-caspase3 from cellsignalling (9661), rat anti-CD45 from BD Pharmingen (BD550539) and rabbit anti-Iba1 was obtained from WAKO (019-19741).
Alexa Fluor labelled secondary antibodies were obtained from Invitrogen, DAPI was purchased from MERCK, and biotinylated anti-rabbit from VECTOR Laboratories U.S.A.
TUNEL Assay was performed with paraffin sections using the Calbiochem TUNEL Assay kit, according to the manufacturer’s instructions.
Kinase assay was performed to measure basal IKK activity. The IKK complex was immunoprecipitated from striatal lysates with an antibody recognizing NEMO using protein A beads. The in-vitro-kinase assay was done as described in , taking recombinant GST-IκBα as substrate. Radiolabelled ATP was used, whose γ-Phosphate is transferred to the substrate GST-IκBα in the presence of the IKK complex proportional to its activity. Kinase activity was determined by detection of radiolabelled GST-IκBα after SDS-PAGE and western blot. For loading control, NEMO levels were detected in the precipitates by immunoblot.
RNA extraction, cDNA synthesis and qPCR
RNA from hippocampus and cortex was isolated with the PeqGOLD Trifast (peQlab) kit from the frozen tissue pulverized with a morter and pestle under liquid nitrogen. cDNA was synthesized using Roche Transcriptor High fidelity cDNA synthesis kit with 0.8 μg of total RNA and oligo-dT-primers according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Quantitative Realtime-PCR assays were performed with the Lightcycler 480 Instrument (Roche Applied Science) with primers and hydrolysis probes designed by the Roche Universal Probe Library system. Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase gene (Hprt) was used as housekeeping gene.
Primer sequences and UPLs used for the quantitative real time PCR are as follows: Hprt (5′-GGA GCG GTA GCA CCT CCT-3′, 5′- CCT GGT TCA TCA TCG CTA ATC-3′, UPL no. 69), Tnf (5′- TGC CTA TGT CTC AGC CTC TTC-3′, 5′- GAG GCC ATT TGG GAA CTT CT-3′, UPL no. 49), Ccl2 (MCP1) (5′- CAT CCA CGT GTT GGC TCA-3′, 5′- GAT CAT CTT GCT GGT GAA TGA GT-3′), Cxcl10 (IP10) (5′- GCT GCC GTC ATT TTC TGC-3′, 5′ TCT CAC TGG CCC GTC ATC-3′ UPL no. 3), Ptgs2 (cycloxygenase 2) (5′- GAT GCT CTT CCG AGC TGT G-3′, 5′- GGA TTG GAA CAG CAA GGA TTT - 3′, UPL no. 45), Bdnf (5′-AGT CTC CAG GAC AGC AAA GC-3′, 5′-TGC AAC CGA AGT ATG AAA TAA CC-3′, UPL no. 31), Ngf-β (5′-AAT TAG GCT CCC TGG AGG TG-3′, 5′-TGG ACT GCA CGA CCA CAG-3′, UPL no. 22), Ntf3 (5′-CGA CGT CCC TGG AAA TAG TC-3′, 5′-TGG ACA TCA CCT TGT TCA CC-3′, UPL no. 29), Igf2 (5′-CGC TTC AGT TTG TCT GTT CG-3′, 5′-GCA GCA CTC TTC CAC GAT G-3′, UPL no. 40), Prkaca (PKA catalytic α) (5′-GGC TCT CGG AGT CCT CAT C-3′, 5′-CAG AGC TGA AGT GGG ATG G-3′, UPL no. 46) Gria1 (GluR1) (5′- AGG GAT CGA CAT CCA GAG AG-3′, 5′- TGC ACA TTT CCT GTC AAA CC-3′, UPL no. 62), Gria2 (GluR2) (5′- CCA ATG GGA TAA GTT CGC ATA-3′, 5′- GCA CAG CTT GCA GTG TTG A-3′, UPL no. 110), Gria3 (GluR3) (5′- AAG CCG TGT GAT ACG ATG AA-3′, 5′- TGC CAG GTT AAC AGC ATT TCT-3′, UPL no. 31), Gria4 (GluR4) (5′- CTG CCA ACA GTT TTG CTG TG-3′, 5′- AAA TGG CAA ACA CCC CTC TA -3′, UPL no. 48), Bcl2 (5′- GTA CCT GAA CCG GCA TCT G -3′, 5′-GGG GCC ATA TAG TTC CAC AA-3′, UPL no. 75), Bcl2l1 (Bcl-xL) (5′- TGA CCA CCT AGA GCC TTG GA - 3′, 5′- TGT TCC CGT AGA GAT CCA CAA - 3′, UPL no. 2), Il6 (5′- CT ACC AAA CTG GAT ATA ATC AGG A - 3′, 5′- CCA GGT AGC TAT GGT ACT CCA GAA-3′, UPL no. 6),), Ccl5 (RANTES) (5′- TGC AGA GGA CTC TGA GAC AGC - 3′, 5′- GAG TGG TGT CCG AGC CATA - 3′, UPL no. 110), Tdo2 (5′- AAT CAG AGC AGG AGC AGA CG - 3′, 5′- TTG GCT CTA AAC CAG GTG TTC -3′, UPL no. 22), Mrg1b (5′- AGA CAA GGA CGC AAT CTA TGG - 3′, 5′- GCT CGC ACT TCT CAA AAA CC -3′, UPL no. 6) and Lcn2 (5′- CCA TCT ATG AGC TAC AAG AGA ACA AT - 3′, 5′- TCT GAT CCA GTA GCG ACA GC -3′, UPL no. 58).
BDNF positive area was measured using ImageJ64 software. BDNF negative area was cut from the photomicrographs, subsequently, quantification was made at a particular threshold level by measuring BDNF positive area in the specific (red) channel.
Quantification of astrogliosis
GFAP positive area was measured using ImageJ64 software. The background was subtracted after importing the images in ImageJ64. Similar threshold level was set for every image, on the dark background (in the particular channel; texas red) and the positive signals were quantified.
Quantification of microglia and Ki67 positive cells
Iba1-positive microglia were counted in two fields of cortex, CA1 region and dentate gyrus per mouse. Ki67-positive cells were counted in two fields of dentate gyrus for every animal in each age group. Images were obtained using Leica CTR5500 microscope. Cell count was performed manually using ImageJ64 software.
Quantification of nuclear cells in the dentate gyrus and CA1 region
Cresyl violet stained images were obtained from control and transgenic mouse brain sections. Particular areas were defined in the CA1 region and in the upper and lower blades of the dentate gyrus for quantification of cell number. Nine coronal planes were selected from rostral to caudal part of brain (bregma: ~ 1.46, 1.70, 1.82, 2.06, 2.18, 2.30, 2.54, 2.80, and 3.08 mm according to ref.  to ensure similar topography and avoid errors due to the differences in orientation of planes. Cells were counted in the specified areas of matched planes using ImageJ64 software. Percentage cell loss was determined with respect to the cell number in the control animals. Primary cortex was measured (bregma: ~ 4.98 mm) with ImageJ64. Images for olfactory bulbi were taken at bregma: ~ 4.28 mm.
ELISA for Bdnf was performed with Promega (Madison, WI, USA) ELISA kit. Protein extracts from cortex and hippocampus were made in the lysis buffer as described by Promega (1% Nonidet P-40, 20 mM Tris, pH 8.0, 137 mM NaCl, 10% glycerol, 1 mM phenyl-methylsulfonyl fluoride, protease inhibitor Complete mini (Roche), 0.5 mM sodium vanadate). The procedure was made according to the manufacturer’s instructions.
Morris water maze task
The experimental subjects were 6 and 9 month old male mice (Co group, n = 13 IKK2nCA, (n = 13), which were housed individually in a 12 h light/dark schedule for one week before the Morris water maze (MWM) task was performed to get familiar with the place. Mice were habituated to handling by the experimenter at least for three days before the experiment. The experiment was performed as described by Vorhees and Williams  with some modifications; the animals were exposed to this spatial learning paradigm for eight consecutive days with four trials per mouse each day with an inter trial interval of 15 min. Visual cues were provided outside the pool on the walls of the room to help in navigation. Position of platform was kept same throughout the training session, however, each day the start locations for the trials were random. For all days, the experiment was performed at the same time of the day with the same environmental conditions. The room was sound proof and the experimenter was blind about the genotypes of mice. Before the MWM task, a visible platform test was performed to exclude motor and visual acuity impairment. The platform was marked with a flag, and tracking length and latency to reach the platform were recorded.
All data including track length, position of the animals and latency to find the hidden platform were recorded using an automated video tracking and analysis system, Viewer II software, (Biobserve, Bonn, Germany).
Statistical analysis was performed with the Prism-software (Graphpad). All data are shown as mean ± SEM. Statistical significances were determined by using unpaired Student’s t test or as stated in the figure legends. (* p < 0.05; ** p < 0.01; *** p < 0.001).
Nuclear factor-kappa B
Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
We thank Ute Leschik, Melanie Gerstenlauer and Bianca Ries for excellent technical assistance. We also thank M.J. Schmeisser and T.M. Böckers for helpful discussions. This work was supported by a grant from the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG: KFO167-P5 to BB).
- Glass CK, Saijo K, Winner B, Marchetto MC, Gage FH: Mechanisms underlying inflammation in neurodegeneration. Cell. 2010, 140: 918-934. 10.1016/j.cell.2010.02.016.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Mattson MP, Meffert MK: Roles for NF-kappaB in nerve cell survival, plasticity, and disease. Cell Death Differ. 2006, 13: 852-860. 10.1038/sj.cdd.4401837.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ghosh S, Hayden MS: New regulators of NF-kappaB in inflammation. Nat Rev Immunol. 2008, 8: 837-848. 10.1038/nri2423.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hayden MS, Ghosh S: Shared principles in NF-kappaB signaling. Cell. 2008, 132: 344-362. 10.1016/j.cell.2008.01.020.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Perkins ND: Integrating cell-signalling pathways with NF-kappaB and IKK function. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2007, 8: 49-62. 10.1038/nrm2083.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kaltschmidt B, Kaltschmidt C: NF-kappaB in the nervous system. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol. 2009, 1: a001271-10.1101/cshperspect.a001271.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kaltschmidt B, Widera D, Kaltschmidt C: Signaling via NF-kappaB in the nervous system. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2005, 1745: 287-299. 10.1016/j.bbamcr.2005.05.009.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Memet S: NF-kappaB functions in the nervous system: from development to disease. Biochem Pharmacol. 2006, 72: 1180-1195. 10.1016/j.bcp.2006.09.003.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Herrmann O, Baumann B, de Lorenzi R, Muhammad S, Zhang W, Kleesiek J, Malfertheiner M, Kohrmann M, Potrovita I, Maegele I, et al: IKK mediates ischemia-induced neuronal death. Nat Med. 2005, 11: 1322-1329. 10.1038/nm1323.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Khoshnan A, Ko J, Tescu S, Brundin P, Patterson PH: IKKalpha and IKKbeta regulation of DNA damage-induced cleavage of huntingtin. PLoS One. 2009, 4: e5768-10.1371/journal.pone.0005768.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lattke M, Magnutzki A, Walther P, Wirth T, Baumann B: Nuclear factor kappab activation impairs ependymal ciliogenesis and links neuroinflammation to hydrocephalus formation. J Neurosci. 2012, 32: 11511-11523. 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0182-12.2012.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Mattson MP, Camandola S: NF-kappaB in neuronal plasticity and neurodegenerative disorders. J Clin Invest. 2001, 107: 247-254. 10.1172/JCI11916.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Nurmi A, Lindsberg PJ, Koistinaho M, Zhang W, Juettler E, Karjalainen-Lindsberg ML, Weih F, Frank N, Schwaninger M, Koistinaho J: Nuclear factor-kappaB contributes to infarction after permanent focal ischemia. Stroke. 2004, 35: 987-991. 10.1161/01.STR.0000120732.45951.26.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Song XQ, Lv LX, Li WQ, Hao YH, Zhao JP: The interaction of nuclear factor-kappa B and cytokines is associated with schizophrenia. Biol Psychiatr. 2009, 65: 481-488. 10.1016/j.biopsych.2008.10.018.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Thompson LM, Aiken CT, Kaltenbach LS, Agrawal N, Illes K, Khoshnan A, Martinez-Vincente M, Arrasate M, O’Rourke JG, Khashwji H, et al: IKK phosphorylates Huntingtin and targets it for degradation by the proteasome and lysosome. J Cell Biol. 2009, 187: 1083-1099. 10.1083/jcb.200909067.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Harari OA, Liao JK: NF-kappaB and innate immunity in ischemic stroke. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2010, 1207: 32-40. 10.1111/j.1749-6632.2010.05735.x.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ridder DA, Schwaninger M: NF-kappaB signaling in cerebral ischemia. Neuroscience. 2009, 158: 995-1006. 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2008.07.007.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Baumann B, Wagner M, Aleksic T, von Wichert G, Weber CK, Adler G, Wirth T: Constitutive IKK2 activation in acinar cells is sufficient to induce pancreatitis in vivo. J Clin Invest. 2007, 117: 1502-1513. 10.1172/JCI30876.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Maier HJ, Schips TG, Wietelmann A, Kruger M, Brunner C, Sauter M, Klingel K, Bottger T, Braun T, Wirth T: Cardiomyocyte-specific IkappaB kinase (IKK)/NF-kappaB activation induces reversible inflammatory cardiomyopathy and heart failure. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012, 109: 11794-11799. 10.1073/pnas.1116584109.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sunami Y, Leithauser F, Gul S, Fiedler K, Guldiken N, Espenlaub S, Holzmann KH, Hipp N, Sindrilaru A, Luedde T, et al: Hepatic activation of IKK/NFkappaB signaling induces liver fibrosis via macrophage-mediated chronic inflammation. Hepatology. 2012, 56: 1117-1128. 10.1002/hep.25711.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Mayford M, Bach ME, Huang YY, Wang L, Hawkins RD, Kandel ER: Control of memory formation through regulated expression of a CaMKII transgene. Science. 1996, 274: 1678-1683. 10.1126/science.274.5293.1678.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Gupta SC, Sundaram C, Reuter S, Aggarwal BB: Inhibiting NF-kappaB activation by small molecules as a therapeutic strategy. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2010, 1799: 775-787. 10.1016/j.bbagrm.2010.05.004.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Oeckl P, Lattke M, Wirth T, Baumann B, Ferger B: Astrocyte-specific IKK2 activation in mice is sufficient to induce neuroinflammation but does not increase susceptibility to MPTP. Neurobiol Dis. 2012, 48 (3): 481-487. 10.1016/j.nbd.2012.06.010. doi: 10.1016/j.nbd.2012.06.010. Epub 2012 Jun 30View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hagihara H, Toyama K, Yamasaki N, Miyakawa T: Dissection of hippocampal dentate gyrus from adult mouse. J Vis Exp. 2009, 33: e1543-doi:10.3791/1543Google Scholar
- Gutierrez H, Hale VA, Dolcet X, Davies A: NF-kappaB signalling regulates the growth of neural processes in the developing PNS and CNS. Development. 2005, 132: 1713-1726. 10.1242/dev.01702.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Schmeisser MJ, Baumann B, Johannsen S, Vindedal GF, Jensen V, Hvalby OC, Sprengel R, Seither J, Maqbool A, Magnutzki A, et al: IkappaB kinase/nuclear factor kappaB-dependent insulin-like growth factor 2 (Igf2) expression regulates synapse formation and spine maturation via Igf2 receptor signaling. J Neurosci. 2012, 32: 5688-5703. 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0111-12.2012.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ahn HJ, Hernandez CM, Levenson JM, Lubin FD, Liou HC, Sweatt JD: c-Rel, an NF-kappaB family transcription factor, is required for hippocampal long-term synaptic plasticity and memory formation. Learn Mem. 2008, 15: 539-549. 10.1101/lm.866408.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Imielski Y, Schwamborn JC, Luningschror P, Heimann P, Holzberg M, Werner H, Leske O, Puschel AW, Memet S, Heumann R, et al: Regrowing the adult brain: NF-kappaB controls functional circuit formation and tissue homeostasis in the dentate gyrus. PLoS One. 2012, 7: e30838-10.1371/journal.pone.0030838.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kaltschmidt B, Ndiaye D, Korte M, Pothion S, Arbibe L, Prullage M, Pfeiffer J, Lindecke A, Staiger V, Israel A, et al: NF-kappaB regulates spatial memory formation and synaptic plasticity through protein kinase A/CREB signaling. Mol Cell Biol. 2006, 26: 2936-2946. 10.1128/MCB.26.8.2936-2946.2006.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kassed CA, Willing AE, Garbuzova-Davis S, Sanberg PR, Pennypacker KR: Lack of NF-kappaB p50 exacerbates degeneration of hippocampal neurons after chemical exposure and impairs learning. Exp Neurol. 2002, 176: 277-288. 10.1006/exnr.2002.7967.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Meffert MK, Baltimore D: Physiological functions for brain NF-kappaB. Trends Neurosci. 2005, 28: 37-43. 10.1016/j.tins.2004.11.002.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Meffert MK, Chang JM, Wiltgen BJ, Fanselow MS, Baltimore D: NF-kappa B functions in synaptic signaling and behavior. Nat Neurosci. 2003, 6: 1072-1078. 10.1038/nn1110.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Merlo E, Freudenthal R, Romano A: The IkappaB kinase inhibitor sulfasalazine impairs long-term memory in the crab Chasmagnathus. Neuroscience. 2002, 112: 161-172. 10.1016/S0306-4522(02)00049-0.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Vorhees CV, Williams MT: Morris water maze: procedures for assessing spatial and related forms of learning and memory. Nat Protoc. 2006, 1: 848-858. 10.1038/nprot.2006.116.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ascano M, Bodmer D, Kuruvilla R: Endocytic trafficking of neurotrophins in neural development. Trends Cell Biol. 2012, 22: 266-273. 10.1016/j.tcb.2012.02.005.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Chen DY, Stern SA, Garcia-Osta A, Saunier-Rebori B, Pollonini G, Bambah-Mukku D, Blitzer RD, Alberini CM: A critical role for IGF-II in memory consolidation and enhancement. Nature. 2011, 469: 491-497. 10.1038/nature09667.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Huang YZ, Mei L: [Neuregulin/ErbB signal transduction pathway in the development of nervous system]. Sheng Li Ke Xue Jin Zhan. 2001, 32: 197-203.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Caldeira MV, Melo CV, Pereira DB, Carvalho R, Correia SS, Backos DS, Carvalho AL, Esteban JA, Duarte CB: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor regulates the expression and synaptic delivery of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid receptor subunits in hippocampal neurons. J Biol Chem. 2007, 282: 12619-12628. 10.1074/jbc.M700607200.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Slipczuk L, Bekinschtein P, Katche C, Cammarota M, Izquierdo I, Medina JH: BDNF activates mTOR to regulate GluR1 expression required for memory formation. PLoS One. 2009, 4: e6007-10.1371/journal.pone.0006007.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Song I, Huganir RL: Regulation of AMPA receptors during synaptic plasticity. Trends Neurosci. 2002, 25: 578-588. 10.1016/S0166-2236(02)02270-1.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Cunha C, Brambilla R, Thomas KL: A simple role for BDNF in learning and memory?. Front Mol Neurosci. 2010, 3: 1-PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sheikh AM, Malik M, Wen G, Chauhan A, Chauhan V, Gong CX, Liu F, Brown WT, Li X: BDNF-Akt-Bcl2 antiapoptotic signaling pathway is compromised in the brain of autistic subjects. J Neurosci Res. 2010, 88: 2641-2647.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Camandola S, Mattson MP: NF-kappa B as a therapeutic target in neurodegenerative diseases. Expert Opin Ther Targets. 2007, 11: 123-132. 10.1517/14728126.96.36.199.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- van Loo G, De Lorenzi R, Schmidt H, Huth M, Mildner A, Schmidt-Supprian M, Lassmann H, Prinz MR, Pasparakis M: Inhibition of transcription factor NF-kappaB in the central nervous system ameliorates autoimmune encephalomyelitis in mice. Nat Immunol. 2006, 7: 954-961. 10.1038/ni1372.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Zhang G, Li J, Purkayastha S, Tang Y, Zhang H, Yin Y, Li B, Liu G, Cai D: Hypothalamic programming of systemic ageing involving IKK-beta, NF-kappaB and GnRH. Nature. 2013, 497: 211-216. 10.1038/nature12143.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Mattson MP, Culmsee C, Yu Z, Camandola S: Roles of nuclear factor kappaB in neuronal survival and plasticity. J Neurochem. 2000, 74: 443-456.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Boersma MC, Dresselhaus EC, De Biase LM, Mihalas AB, Bergles DE, Meffert MK: A requirement for nuclear factor-kappaB in developmental and plasticity-associated synaptogenesis. J Neurosci. 2011, 31: 5414-5425. 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2456-10.2011.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Christoffel DJ, Golden SA, Dumitriu D, Robison AJ, Janssen WG, Ahn HF, Krishnan V, Reyes CM, Han MH, Ables JL, et al: IkappaB kinase regulates social defeat stress-induced synaptic and behavioral plasticity. J Neurosci. 2011, 31: 314-321. 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.4763-10.2011.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Gutierrez H, Davies AM: Regulation of neural process growth, elaboration and structural plasticity by NF-kappaB. Trends Neurosci. 2011, 34: 316-325. 10.1016/j.tins.2011.03.001.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Russo SJ, Wilkinson MB, Mazei-Robison MS, Dietz DM, Maze I, Krishnan V, Renthal W, Graham A, Birnbaum SG, Green TA, et al: Nuclear factor kappa B signaling regulates neuronal morphology and cocaine reward. J Neurosci. 2009, 29: 3529-3537. 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.6173-08.2009.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kaltschmidt C, Kaltschmidt B, Baeuerle PA: Stimulation of ionotropic glutamate receptors activates transcription factor NF-kappa B in primary neurons. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995, 92: 9618-9622. 10.1073/pnas.92.21.9618.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Grilli M, Goffi F, Memo M, Spano P: Interleukin-1beta and glutamate activate the NF-kappaB/Rel binding site from the regulatory region of the amyloid precursor protein gene in primary neuronal cultures. J Biol Chem. 1996, 271: 15002-15007. 10.1074/jbc.271.25.15002.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Grilli M, Pizzi M, Memo M, Spano P: Neuroprotection by aspirin and sodium salicylate through blockade of NF-kappaB activation. Science. 1996, 274: 1383-1385. 10.1126/science.274.5291.1383.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sarnico I, Boroni F, Benarese M, Alghisi M, Valerio A, Battistin L, Spano P, Pizzi M: Targeting IKK2 by pharmacological inhibitor AS602868 prevents excitotoxic injury to neurons and oligodendrocytes. J Neural Transm. 2008, 115: 693-701. 10.1007/s00702-007-0016-1.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Deng W, Aimone JB, Gage FH: New neurons and new memories: how does adult hippocampal neurogenesis affect learning and memory?. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2010, 11: 339-350. 10.1038/nrn2822.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Denis-Donini S, Dellarole A, Crociara P, Francese MT, Bortolotto V, Quadrato G, Canonico PL, Orsetti M, Ghi P, Memo M, et al: Impaired adult neurogenesis associated with short-term memory defects in NF-kappaB p50-deficient mice. J Neurosci. 2008, 28: 3911-3919. 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0148-08.2008.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sarnico I, Lanzillotta A, Boroni F, Benarese M, Alghisi M, Schwaninger M, Inta I, Battistin L, Spano P, Pizzi M: NF-kappaB p50/RelA and c-Rel-containing dimers: opposite regulators of neuron vulnerability to ischaemia. J Neurochem. 2009, 108: 475-485. 10.1111/j.1471-4159.2008.05783.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lee RM, Gillet G, Burnside J, Thomas SJ, Neiman P: Role of Nr13 in regulation of programmed cell death in the bursa of Fabricius. Genes Dev. 1999, 13: 718-728. 10.1101/gad.13.6.718.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ricca A, Biroccio A, Trisciuoglio D, Cippitelli M, Zupi G, Del Bufalo D: relA over-expression reduces tumorigenicity and activates apoptosis in human cancer cells. Br J Canc. 2001, 85: 1914-1921. 10.1054/bjoc.2001.2174.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lu B, Pang PT, Woo NH: The yin and yang of neurotrophin action. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2005, 6: 603-614. 10.1038/nrn1726.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Yamada K, Nabeshima T: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor/TrkB signaling in memory processes. J Pharmacol Sci. 2003, 91: 267-270. 10.1254/jphs.91.267.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Xiu MH, Hui L, Dang YF, Hou TD, Zhang CX, Zheng YL, Chen da C, Kosten TR, Zhang XY: Decreased serum BDNF levels in chronic institutionalized schizophrenia on long-term treatment with typical and atypical antipsychotics. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatr. 2009, 33: 1508-1512. 10.1016/j.pnpbp.2009.08.011.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Zuccato C, Cattaneo E: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor in neurodegenerative diseases. Nat Rev Neurol. 2009, 5: 311-322. 10.1038/nrneurol.2009.54.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Block ML, Zecca L, Hong JS: Microglia-mediated neurotoxicity: uncovering the molecular mechanisms. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2007, 8: 57-69. 10.1038/nrn2038.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sofroniew MV, Vinters HV: Astrocytes: biology and pathology. Acta Neuropathol. 2010, 119: 7-35. 10.1007/s00401-009-0619-8.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Dantzer R, O’Connor JC, Freund GG, Johnson RW, Kelley KW: From inflammation to sickness and depression: when the immune system subjugates the brain. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2008, 9: 46-56. 10.1038/nrn2297.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Saha RN, Liu X, Pahan K: Up-regulation of BDNF in astrocytes by TNF-alpha: a case for the neuroprotective role of cytokine. J Neuroimmune Pharmacol. 2006, 1: 212-222. 10.1007/s11481-006-9020-8.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Boycott HE, Wilkinson JA, Boyle JP, Pearson HA, Peers C: Differential involvement of TNF alpha in hypoxic suppression of astrocyte glutamate transporters. Glia. 2008, 56: 998-1004. 10.1002/glia.20673.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Campbell KJ, Rocha S, Perkins ND: Active repression of antiapoptotic gene expression by RelA(p65) NF-kappa B. Mol Cell. 2004, 13: 853-865. 10.1016/S1097-2765(04)00131-5.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Dallas M, Boycott HE, Atkinson L, Miller A, Boyle JP, Pearson HA, Peers C: Hypoxia suppresses glutamate transport in astrocytes. J Neurosci. 2007, 27: 3946-3955. 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.5030-06.2007.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Fuchikami M, Yamamoto S, Morinobu S, Takei S, Yamawaki S: Epigenetic regulation of BDNF gene in response to stress. Psychiatr Investig. 2010, 7: 251-256. 10.4306/pi.2010.7.4.251.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Li X, Wei W, Ratnu VS, Bredy TW: On the potential role of active DNA demethylation in establishing epigenetic states associated with neural plasticity and memory. Neurobiol Learn Mem. 2013, 105: 125-132.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lubin FD, Roth TL, Sweatt JD: Epigenetic regulation of BDNF gene transcription in the consolidation of fear memory. J Neurosci. 2008, 28: 10576-10586. 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1786-08.2008.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sik A, Hajos N, Gulacsi A, Mody I, Freund TF: The absence of a major Ca2+ signaling pathway in GABAergic neurons of the hippocampus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998, 95: 3245-3250. 10.1073/pnas.95.6.3245.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Han HJ, Allen CC, Buchovecky CM, Yetman MJ, Born HA, Marin MA, Rodgers SP, Song BJ, Lu HC, Justice MJ, et al: Strain background influences neurotoxicity and behavioral abnormalities in mice expressing the tetracycline transactivator. J Neurosci. 2012, 32: 10574-10586. 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0893-12.2012.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Schips TG, Wietelmann A, Hohn K, Schimanski S, Walther P, Braun T, Wirth T, Maier HJ: FoxO3 induces reversible cardiac atrophy and autophagy in a transgenic mouse model. Cardiovasc Res. 2010, 91: 587-597.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Schmidt-Strassburger U, Schips TG, Maier HJ, Kloiber K, Mannella F, Braunstein KE, Holzmann K, Ushmorov A, Liebau S, Boeckers TM, Wirth T: Expression of constitutively active FoxO3 in murine forebrain leads to a loss of neural progenitors. FASEB J. 2012, 26 (12): 4990-5001. 10.1096/fj.12-208587. doi: 10.1096/fj.12-208587. Epub 2012 Aug 30.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Schmued LC, Albertson C, Slikker W: Fluoro-Jade: a novel fluorochrome for the sensitive and reliable histochemical localization of neuronal degeneration. Brain Res. 1997, 751: 37-46. 10.1016/S0006-8993(96)01387-X.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Paxinos G, Franklin KBJ: The Mouse Brain in Stereotaxic Coordinates. 2001Google Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.