Effects of sodium butyrate (SB) exposure on α-Syn oligomerization and caspase 3 activation. 3D5 cells with 10 days (ds) of RA-elicited differentiation and TetOff-induced α-Syn expression were exposed to (A) 0, 2, 5, 10 or 20 mM SB for 24 hours (hs) and (B) 10 mM SB for 6, 12, 24 or 36 hs. Cultures without SB treatment for 36 hs were used as controls (Con) for (B). Proteins from the SB-treated and non-treated cultures were resolved by SDS-PAGE and probed with antibodies to α-Syn, GAPDH and active forms of caspase 3. The SB-treated cultures contained more α-Syn oligomers (34 to 230 kDa in size) and cleaved caspase 3. The effect of SB on α-Syn oligomerization and apoptosis is dose- and time-dependent. Molecular weight markers shown in current and subsequent figures were for determining the size of α-Syn products.