Effects of Aβ42 and leptin on the binding of STAT5 to IGF-1 promoter region. (a) Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay (EMSA) demonstrates that Aβ42 abrogates STAT5 binding to the exogenous oligonucleotide probes. Leptin treatment restores STAT5 binding to the oligonucleotide probe. (b) A Chromatin Immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay demonstrates that treatment with leptin results in about 7-fold increase in STAT5 binding in the IGF-1 promoter region. ChIP analysis also revealed that treatment with Aβ42 attenuates binding of STAT5 to the IGF-1 promoter, while concomitant leptin treatment precludes this deleterious effect. ***p < 0.001 versus control; † † † p < 0.001 versus Aβ42.