Distinct activities of zebrafish Prpf31 AD5 and SP117 after mRNA injection. (A) Wild-type phenotype in embryos injected with 800 ng/ul prpf31 mRNA. (B) Embryos injected with 200 ng/ul AD5 mRNA exhibit severe deformations (malformed brains, short trunks, cardiac edema, and curved body axis) or death. (C) Normal phenotype in embryos injected with 800 ng/ul SP117 mRNA. (D) Non-injected control embryos at 48 hpf. (E) Quantitative analysis of embryonic phenotypes (normal, deformed and dead) after injection of different doses of prpf31, AD5 and SP117 mRNAs. The mean percentage of embryos in each group was calculated from two or three independent experiments and standard deviation is shown by error bars. (F) Analysis of endogenous prpf31 RNA levels by qRT-PCR after injection of 61 nM prpf31, AD5, SP117 mRNAs and 5 μg/μl prpf31 Morpholino oligos (MO), respectively. Both MO and AD5 mRNA injected embryos show significant increase of endogenous prpf31 levels. Data were analyzed using T-test. Significant differences are indicated by asterisks.