Schematic of proposed stress-mediated TDP-43 accumulation into SGs. Chronic cell stress (eg oxidative stress) induces activation of stress kinases such as JNK. This may phosphorylate hnRNPs such as hnRNP K resulting in phosphoryated forms (p-hnRNP). This could modulate interaction with TDP-43 and association with SGs. Prolonged stress may lead to progression of SGs to protein aggregates containing TDP-43 and subsequent cell toxicity.