Treatment of SH-SY5Y cells with paraquat induces ERK and p-38-dependent accumulation of TDP-43 and HuR-positive SGs. Cells were treated overnight with 1 mM paraquat in the absence or presence of 10 μM PD98059 (ERK inhibitor), SB203580 (p38 inhibitor) or SP600125 (JNK inhibitor) and immunofluorescence analysis of TDP-43 and HuR was performed. A-D: Untreated control, E-H: paraquat-treated, I-L: paraquat and PD98059, M-P: paraquat and SB203580, Q-T: paraquat and SB600125. Green = TDP-43, red = HuR, blue = DAPI. Arrows indicate SGs. Bottom panel indicates merged images from TDP-43 and HuR panels above. Bar = 10 μm. Representative images from three separate experiments performed in duplicate or triplicate.