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Figure 11 | Molecular Neurodegeneration

Figure 11

From: Ceramide sphingolipid signaling mediates Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)-dependent toxicity via caspase signaling in dopaminergic neurons

Figure 11

Proposed model for cellular mechanisms and signaling pathways activated by TNF and ceramide/sphingolipid signaling to induce neurotoxicity in DA neurons. We propose a model by which TNF/TNFR1-dependent activation of SMases triggers production of ceramide and other downstream lipid metabolites that promote activation of caspase-8/3 signaling, decreased Akt activation and mitochondrial membrane potential, and increased endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in DA cells.

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