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Table 2 Summary of preclinical studies on patients with sporadic AD

From: Fluid biomarkers in Alzheimer’s disease – current concepts

Sporadic AD
Subjects Developed dementia Mean age (years) Follow-up time (years) CSF Aβ42, T-tau, P-tau, Aβ42:Aβ40 ratio or plasma Aβ42 Comment Ref
55 4 73 8 CSF T-tau was cross-sectionally correlated with MMSE score. CSF Aβ42 was correlated with future MMSE and change in MMSE. There were only women in this study. [16]
61 13 (had a CDR > 0) 75 3-4 No significant results for Aβ42, T-tau, P-tau in CSF. The main outcome was to predict conversion from CDR 0 to a higher CDR. The CSF T-tau:Aβ42 and P-tau:Aβ42 ratios significantly predicted this. [17]
51 0 73 3 ↓ Aβ42 in CSF predicted cognitive decline. No significant results for T-tau or P-tau in CSF. Cognition was evaluated with memQoL and MMSE. The combination of CSF Aβ42 and P-tau predicted cognitive decline with increased accuracy compared with Aβ42 alone. [18]
37 0 73 4.5 ↓ Aβ42 CSF at follow-up correlated with worse cognition. Individuals with the most substantial longitudinal decrease of Aβ42 or increase of P-tau in CSF performed worse on cognitive test than the others. No significant results for CSF T-tau and plasma Aβ42. Cognition was evaluated with ADAS-cog and AQT. [19]
43 0, but 4 developed MCI Around 69a 3.5 Aβ42 and T-tau in CSF were used for predicting MCI. Individuals were dichotomized into having a high or normal CSF T-tau/Aβ42 ratio. Individuals with a high ratio were more likely to develop MCI on follow-up. [20]
35 7 85 3 ↓Aβ42 in CSF at baseline in patients that developed dementia. The CSF Aβ42:Aβ40 ratio showed a tendency to be lower (p = 0.068) in individuals that developed dementia. CSF Aβ40 was lower in patients with dementia at baseline, but could not predict dementia in the cognitively normal. [21]
127 2, and 11 developed MCI 60 4 ↓Aβ42, ↑T-tau and ↑ P-tau in CSF among progressors. All patients had subjective complaints at baseline. CSF Aβ42 alone was the strongest predictor for clinical progression. [22]
  1. = amyloid β; AD = Alzheimer’s disease; ADAS-cog = Alzheimer Disease Assessment Scale–cognitive subscale; AQT = A Quick Test of Cognitive Speed; CDR = Clinical Dementia Rating; CSF = cerebrospinal fluid; MCI = mild cognitive impairment; memQoL = the memory item of the Quality-of-Life Alzheimer’s disease instrument; MMSE = mini-mental state examination; P-tau = hyperphosphorylated tau, Ref = reference; T-tau = total tau.
  2. aNot stated specifically for these subgroups.