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Table 2 Effect of apoE isoform on soluble exogenous apoE/Aβ complex levels

From: Soluble apoE/Aβ complex: mechanism and therapeutic target for APOE4-induced AD risk

Study Biological source Detection method Results
Naslund et al, 1995 [36] Human brain (AD & NAD) SDS-PAGE (Non-reducing), WB AD > NAD, No apoE isoform differences measured
Russo et al, 1998 [46] Human brain (AD & NAD) IP, SDS-PAGE (Non-reducing?), WB NAD apoE23/Aβ = NAD apoE33/Aβ = NAD apoE34/Aβ >>
    AD apoE33/Aβ > AD apoE44/Aβ
    SDS & protease digestion stability: NAD > AD
Yamauchi et al, 1999 [48] Human CSF & serum (NAD) SDS-PAGE (Non-reducing), WB apoE33/Aβ > apoE44/Aβ (ND)
Hashimoto et al, 2012 [27] Human brain (NAD) SEC, SDS-PAGE (Reducing), WB No complex measured, HMW Aβ interacts with apoE on HDL particles
LaDu et al, 2012 [63] Human plasma (NAD) SEC, SDS-PAGE (Non-reducing), WB 95% Aβ elutes with lipoproteins
  Human CSF (NAD)   100% Aβ associated with apoE containing lipoproteins, apoE monomer/Aβ (45 kDa) & apoE dimer/Aβ (97 kDa) detected
Tai et al, 2013 [4] Hippocampal homogenates (EFAD mice) ELISA SDS stable: E2FAD > E3FAD > E4FAD Total complex: E2FAD = E3FAD > E4FAD
  Human cortical synaptosomes (AD & NAD)   Total complex:
    • NAD > AD
    • NAD apoE33/Aβ = NAD apoE4X/Aβ > > AD apoE33/Aβ > AD apoE4X/Aβ
    SDS stable:
    • NAD apoE33/Aβ > > NAD apoE4X/Aβ & AD apoE33/Aβ > AD apoE4X/Aβ
  Human CSF (AD & NAD)   • NAD apoE33/Aβ > > NAD apoE4X/Aβ
Verghese, et al, 2013 [65] Human CSF (NAD) SEC, ELISA 95% Aβ (free) > > apoE33/Aβ = apoE44/Aβ
    No apoE isoform differences
    (In co-elution peak stoichiometric ratio of apoE:Aβ = 1:0.0002-0.0003)
  1. AD, Alzheimer’s disease patients; CSF, Cerebrospinal fluid; ELISA, Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; HDL, High density lipoprotein; HMW, High molecular weight; IP, Immuno-precipitation; NAD, Non-AD or non-dementia control; ND, Not detected; PAGE, Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis; SDS, Sodium dodecyl sulfate; SEC, Size exclusion chromatography; WB, Western blot.