Effects of GLaz over-expression on Atg8a expression and under pharmacological induction of autophagy. A, Pathogenic expression of hATXN182Q and starvation increase autophagic activity, monitored by Atg8a mRNA levels. B, Atg8a expression is decreased by co-expression of GLaz and the hATXN182Q transgene. Statistical differences were assayed by Mann–Whitney U-test. *P < 0.05. C, Levels of ubiquitinated proteins in fly heads, measured by immunoblot after treatment with the autophagy inducer rapamycin. An increase in ubiquitin load is observed when SCA1 model flies are exposed to rapamycin, while a decrease in ubiquitin signal is clear upon GLaz over-expression. Color code applies for blot and graphs in B and C. Statistical differences were assayed by Student’s t-test. *P < 0.05.