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Fig. 3 | Molecular Neurodegeneration

Fig. 3

From: Glutaminase-containing microvesicles from HIV-1-infected macrophages and immune-activated microglia induce neurotoxicity

Fig. 3

MVs isolated from HIV-1-infected MDM and immune-activated microglia mediate extracellular glutamate production through GLS1. a Cell-free supernatants from mock-infected and HIV-1-infected macrophages were incubated with or without glutamine and 1 mM L-DON ex vivo for two days. The resulting glutamate levels were determined by RP-HPLC. *** denotes p < 0.001 in comparison to the 5 mM glutamine group in HIV-1-infected samples. b MVs were isolated from cell-free supernatants from mock-infected and HIV-1-infected MDM and incubated with or without glutamine and 1 mM L-DON ex vivo for two days. Glutamate generation in MVs or low speed (LS) pellets was determined by RP-HPLC. Low speed pellets were collected after 10,000 g centrifugation, which contained subcellular organelles and debris. *** denotes p < 0.001 in comparison to 5 mM glutamine group in HIV-1-infected samples. c MVs were isolated from cell-free supernatants from untreated and LPS-activated microglia and incubated with or without glutamine and 1 mM L-DON ex vivo for two days. Glutamate generation in MVs was determined by RP-HPLC. *** denotes p < 0.001 in comparison to 5 mM glutamine group in LPS-activated samples. Results are means ± SD of triplicate samples and are representative of three independent experiments

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