Beclin 1 regulates TGF-β signaling. a Representative western blot from infected primary forebrain neurons. Starred band is non-specific. Quantification of (b) P-Smad/total Smad levels, and (c) Smad relative to NSE from three independent experiments (n = 3/group). All bars are mean ± SEM, **p ≤ 0.01, ****p ≤ 0.0001. d Mammalian homologs of beclin 1 complexes. Beclin 1 interacts mutually exclusively with Atg14 and UVRAG. In yeast, the ATG14 complex functions specifically in autophagy, while the Vps38 (homologous to UVRAG) complex functions specifically in the vacuolar protein sorting pathway. e) SEAP activity in media collected from F11 cells expressing ctrl shRNA or shRNA targeting beclin 1, VPS34, UVRAG, ATG14, or ATG7. Data are combined results from 2–3 independent experiments (n = 3/group). Values were normalized to ctrl shRNA levels for each experiment. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA with Dunnet’s post-test. All bar graphs are mean ± SEM.