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Fig. 1 | Molecular Neurodegeneration

Fig. 1

From: High-density lipoproteins suppress Aβ-induced PBMC adhesion to human endothelial cells in bioengineered vessels and in monoculture

Fig. 1

Aβ induces monocyte adhesion in engineered vessels, which is suppressed by HDL. a Schematic representation of bioengineered tissue. b Histological structure of engineered tissue using hematoxalin-eosin staining to reveal a dense tissue formation composed of cells and extracellular matrix in engineered vessels. c α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) confirmed the smooth muscle phenotype of cells in the inner layers and d CD31 confirmed an endothelial monolayer. Scale bar represents 200 μm. e Evans blue staining confirmed a tight endothelium. f-g 1 μM of Aβ40 or h-i Aβ42 monomers were injected within the tissue chamber (abluminal). Fluorescently labeled human monocytes (THP1, white) were circulated in the lumen of the engineered vessels. Tissues were counterstained with DAPI (blue) and analyzed using confocal microscopy over time. j-m 200 μg/mL of HDL were circulated through the lumen of the grafts for 2 h prior injection of 1 μM of j-k Aβ40 or l-m Aβ42 monomers within the tissue chamber (abluminal) for 8 h prior to circulating fluorescent THP1 in the lumen. Graphs represent means ± SD of adhered monocytes relative to Aβ treated tissues from at least 3 individual grafts. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01

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