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Fig. 1 | Molecular Neurodegeneration

Fig. 1

From: Subretinal macrophages produce classical complement activator C1q leading to the progression of focal retinal degeneration

Fig. 1

C1qa gene expression following days of photo-oxidative damage (PD) in wild-type animals (WT). a Increasing numbers of TUNEL+ cells in the outer retina was temporally associated with changes in expression of C1qa. b-f TUNEL+ cells (red; arrows) were most abundant in the ONL at 5 (e) and 7 days (f), and absent in dim-control (b). g Increasing number of IBA1+ macrophages in the outer retina was significant at 5 and 7 days of PD, and overlapped with upregulation of C1qa (P < 0.05). h-l IBA1+ cells were prominent in retinas at 5 (k) and 7 (l) days of PD and included the activated/amoeboid cells in outer retina and subretinal space. m CD68 immunoreactivity was abundant in IBA1+ macrophages located in the subretinal space after 7 days of PD (arrows). n TUNEL and IBA1 double-labelling displayed that IBA1+ macrophages contained multiple TUNEL+ apoptotic cells in the subretinal space after PD (arrows). Statistical significance was determined by student t-test and two-way ANOVA accompanied with post-hoc multiple comparison (N = 5-6 per group, *represents P < 0.05). ONL, outer nuclear layer; INL, inner nuclear layer. For all images, scale bars represent 50 μm

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