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Table 1 T cell subsets maintain homeostatic brain functions

From: Peripheral immune system in aging and Alzheimer’s disease

Subset/Cytokine Location Effects on brain function Specificity Mechanism Reference
TH1/IFNƔ Meninges ↑ Social behavior bulk IFNƔ signaling activation in inhibitory neurons increases GABAergic currents [69]
TH2/IL-4 Meninges ↑ Learning and memory bulk Restricts meningeal myeloid cell activation and promotes neutrophic factor expression [70]
↑TH2:TH1 ratio CP of Aged Mice ↓ Cognitive capacity CNS antigens IL-4 induces while IFNƔ inhibits CCL11 expression by epithelia cells [73]