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Table 2 A summary list of AD drugs and therapies tested in clinical trials

From: Advances in developing novel therapeutic strategies for Alzheimer’s disease

AD drugs tested in clinical trials
Drug Phase Subject NCT Summary Reference
1.Therapies Targeted at Amyloid
 1.1 Reducing Aβ Generation
  MK-8931 (BACE inh.) III Prodromal AD NCT01953601 lack of efficacy 14-16
  LY450139 III Mild to moderate AD NCT00762411; NCT00594568 lack of efficacy 15,18, 19,
  (γ-secretase inh.)    NCT01035138   34, 36, 37
  Avagacestat II Prodromal AD NCT00890890 no efficacy 35
  NIC5-15 II Probable AD NCT01928420 completed 15,40
  R-flurbiprofen III Probable AD NCT00105547; NCT00322036 lack of efficacy 42
  EVP-0962 II Healthy, MCI or early AD NCT01661673 terminated 15
 1.2 Accelerating Aβ Clearance
  AN-1792 II Mild-to-moderate AD NCT00021723 severe meningoencephalitis 44
  Affitope AD02 II Early AD NCT02008513; NCT01117818 no efficacy 46
  CAD106 II/III Mild AD NCT02565511 ongoing 15, 47
  Bapineuzumab III Mild-to-moderate AD NCT00667810; NCT00575055
NCT00574132
no efficacy 43, 48
  Solanezumab III Mild-to-moderate AD
probable AD
NCT00905372; NCT00904683
NCT01900665
no efficacy 43, 49
  BAN2401 II MCI due to AD and mild AD NCT01767311 positive results 50
  Crenezumab III Probable AD or prodromal AD NCT03114657; NCT02670083 ongoing  
  Gantenerumab III Probable AD or prodromal AD NCT03443973; NCT03444870 ongoing  
  Aducanumab I Prodromal or Mild AD NCT01677572 positive results but ARIA 51
  III MCI due to AD or mild AD NCT02484547; NCT02477800 ongoing  
 1.3 Other Anti-amyloidogenic Compounds with Diverse Mechanisms of Action
  ALZT-OP1 III Early AD NCT02547818 ongoing 43
  GV-971 III Mild-to-moderate AD NCT02293915 completed 43
  Posiphen I MCI or probably AD NCT02925650 ongoing 52
  ELND005 II/III Mild-to-severe AD   ongoing 53
  ALZ801 III Mild AD (ApoE4 carriers)   ongoing 43
2. Therapies Targeted at Tau
 2.1 Tau Stabilizers and Aggregation Inhibitors
  TPI 287 I Probable AD NCT01966666 ongoing  
  Rember™ II Mild or moderate AD NCT00684944; NCT00515333 no efficacy 62, 63
  TRx0237 III Mild-to-moderate AD/BvFTD NCT01689233; NCT01689246
NCT02245568
no efficacy 64
  TauRx II/III Mild or moderate AD NCT03539380 ongoing  
 2.2 Therapies Targeted at Tau Post-translational Modifications
  Lithium and Valproate II AD NCT00088387 no efficacy 67, 68
  NP-12 IIb Mild-to-moderate AD NCT01350362 no efficacy 69-71
 2.3 Anti-tau Immunotherapy
  AADvac1 II Mild-to-moderate AD NCT02579252 ongoing 94
  ACI-35 I Mild-to-moderate AD ISRCTN13033912 completed 61
  ABBV-8E12 II PSP; MCI or probable AD NCT03391765; NCT02880956 ongoing  
  RO7105705 I Healthy NCT02820896 ongoing  
3. Therapies Targeted at ApoE
  Bexarotene II Probable AD NCT01782742 no efficacy 142
4. Neuroprotective Therapies
 4.1 Neurotrophins and Their Receptor-based Therapies
  NGF I Probable early AD NCT00017940 positive results 170
  AAV2-NGF II Mild-to-moderate AD NCT00876863 no efficacy 173
  LM11A-31 (p75 inh.) I/II Mild-to-moderate AD NCT03069014 ongoing  
 4.2 Therapies Targeted at Neuroinflammation and Oxidative Stress
  Dimebon III AD NCT00912288 no efficacy 209
  valacyclovir II Probable AD NCT03282916 ongoing  
5. Symptomatic Cognitive Enhancers
  Idalopirdine II Probable AD NCT01019421 positive results 233
  (5-HT6 antag.) III Mild-to-moderate AD NCT01955161; NCT02006641
NCT02006654
no efficacy 234
  GSK239512 (H3R antag.) II Probable AD NCT01009255 no efficacy 235
  ABT288 (H3R antag.) II Mild-to-moderate AD NCT01018875 no efficacy 236
  Rasagiline (MAOB inh.) II Probable AD NCT02359552 ongoing 237
  Ladostigil (combined) II MCI or Mild-to-moderate AD NCT01429623; NCT01354691 no efficacy 238-241
  AZD0530 Ib Mild-to-moderate AD NCT01864655 safety and tolerance 252
  (Fyn kinase inh.) II Mild AD NCT02167256 ongoing  
  Cilostazol II MCI NCT02491268 positive results 255-257
  (PDE3 inh.) IV Mild-to-moderate AD NCT01409564 ongoing  
  HT-0712 (PDE4 inh.) II Age-associated memory impairment NCT02013310 completed 253, 254
  Roflumilast (PDE4 inh.) I Scopolamine-induced CI NCT02051335 no efficacy 253, 254
  II Healthy NCT01433666 positive results 253, 254
   Age-associated memory impairment ISRCTN96013814 completed 253, 254
  BPN14770 (PDE4 inh.) I Healthy NCT02648672; NCT02840279 positive results 253, 254
  BI 409306 (PDE9 inh.) I Healthy NCT01343706 safety and tolerance 253
  II MCI due to AD and mild AD NCT02337907 ongoing 253, 254
  PF044467943 I Mild-to-moderate AD NCT00988598 safety and tolerance 253
  (PDE9 inh.) II Mild-to-moderate AD   no efficacy 253
6. Therapies and Interventions for AD Prevention
  PROSPER (statin) II High risk (with AD parents) NCT00939822 no efficacy 265
  ACCORD-MIND III DM2 NCT00182910 no efficacy 268
  SNIFF (i.n. insulin) II; II/III MCI or AD or probable AD NCT00438568; NCT01767909 ongoing 271-273
  Metformin IV Age >60 years with IGT NCT02432287 completed 274
  Pioglitazone II Mild-to-moderate AD NCT00982202 safety and tolerance 275
  MIND (diet)   BMI≥25 non-demented NCT02817074 ongoing 277, 278
  FABS (fitness)   Non-demented ACTRN12605000136606 positive results 280
  ACTIVE (cog. training) II/III MCI NCT00298558 positive results 282
  Vit. E + Memantine III Mild to moderate AD NCT00235716 positive results 284, 285
  Ginkgo biloba III Non-demented and MCI NCT00010803 no efficacy 286, 287
  EGb 761® IV Subjects with memory complaints NCT00276510 no efficacy 288
  MIDAS   Age-associated memory impairment NCT00278135 positive results 290
  FINGER   High risk NCT01041989 positive results 291
  MIND-ADMINI   Prodromal AD NCT03249688 ongoing