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Table 1 Overview of metabolomic studies in the blood metabolome of PD clinical populations

From: Recent advances and perspectives of metabolomics-based investigations in Parkinson’s disease

Analytical platform Subjects Differential metabolites/metabolic pathways Statistics Validation Reference
HILIC-TOF/MS Early PD (n = 80)
Controls (n = 76)
Ethanolamine, N-Lauroylglycine, Alpha-N-Phenylacetyl-L-glutamine, Sarcosine, Glu-Ile, 1,3-Dimethyluracil, Arg-Ala, PCs, SMs, Lyso-PAF C-16, etc. ROC (AUC = 0.80) No Stoessel D et al. [52]
CE-TOF/MS
LC-TOOF/MS
PD (n = 109)
Controls (n = 32)
Long chain acylcarnitines ROC (AUC = 0.895) Yes Saiki S et al. [102]
LC-MS PD (LID, n = 10,
non-LID, n = 8,
unmedicated, n = 8)
Controls (n = 14)
3-hydroxykynurenine/kynurenic acid
Ratio
t-test, p < 0.05 No Havelund JF et al. [6]
Nontargeted MS-based metabolomics Early PD (n = 41)
Controls (n = 40)
Hexanoylglutamine, Decanoylcarnitine, Myristoleoylcarnitine, Octanoylcarnitine, Oleoylcarnitine, Palmitoleoylcarnitine, Suberoylcarnitine, Octadecanedioate, 3-hydroxysebacate ROC (AUC = 0.857) No Burté F et al. [111]
UPLC-MS/MS
GC-MS
PD (n = 35)
Controls (n = 15)
Lower levels of tryptophan, caffeine, bilirubin and ergothioneine; higher levels of levodopa metabolites and biliverdin random forest classification No Hatano T et al. [112]
NMR PD (n = 43)
Controls (n = 37)
Myoinositol, sorbitol, citrate, acetate, succinate and pyruvate PLS-DA No Ahmed SS et al. [113]
LCECA LRRK2 PD (n = 12)
idiopathic PD (n = 41)
Controls (n = 46)
Purine metabolism (uric acid, hypoxanthine, xanthine, etc.) PLS-DA No Johansen KK et al. [16]
LCECA PD (n = 66)
Controls (n = 25)
8-OHdG, glutathione, uric acid PLS-DA No Bogdanov M et al. [17]
GC-TOFMS PD (n = 20)
Controls (n = 20)
Amino acids (pyroglutamate and 2-oxoisocaproate), C16-C18 saturated and unsaturated fatty acids OPLS-DA No Trupp M et al. [50]
LC-MS
GC-MS
PD (n = 82)
RLS (n = 95)
Controls (n = 1272)
Long-chain (polyunsaturated) fatty acids, inositol metabolites   No Kassubek J et al. [101]
UPLC-TOF/MS PD (cohort 1, n = 82, cohort 2, n = 118)
Controls (cohort 1, n = 82, cohort 2, n = 37)
Huntington’s disease (cohort2, n = 22)
Kynurenic acid, quinolinic acid, ratio of kynurenic acid /kynurenine, ratio of quinolinic acid/ kynurenic acid OPLS-DA Yes Chang KH et al. [19]
LC-QE/MS Slow. PD (n = 41)
Rapid. PD (n = 39)
Controls (n = 20)
N8-acetyl spermidine OPLS-DA No Roede JR et al. [49]