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Fig. 1 | Molecular Neurodegeneration

Fig. 1

From: Sex-dependent calcium hyperactivity due to lysosomal-related dysfunction in astrocytes from APOE4 versus APOE3 gene targeted replacement mice

Fig. 1

Enhanced Ca2+ signals in astrocytes from male APOE4 vs APOE3 targeted replacement mice. a Astrocyte from stratum radiatum of hippocampus of male mice labeled with SR101 (red), fluo-4/AM (green), and merged image. Scale bar represents 10 μm. b Spontaneous Ca2+ activity in astrocytes from APOE3 (N = 36 astrocytes) and APOE4 male mice (N = 16 astrocytes). Ca2+ was monitored for 120 s without any stimulation. c Left panels, raster plots of Ca2+ activity in APOE3 (upper panel, N = 146 astrocytes), and APOE4 male mice (lower panel, N = 171 astrocytes). The color code indicates relative fluorescence changes before and after local application of ATP (arrow, 5 s, 1 mM). Right panel, representative traces of Ca2+ signals evoked by an ATP puff in APOE3 (top) and APOE4 (bottom) astrocytes (arrows indicate ATP stimulation). d Quantification of the amplitude and frequency of Ca2+ events for 30 s before (basal peaks), during (ATP) and after local application of stimulus (post-ATP). Statistical significance was established at p < 0.05 (*), p < 0.01 (**), and p < 0.001 (***); One-way ANOVA followed by Dunn’s post hoc test. All the experiments were performed in the presence of TTX (1 μM). N = 4 mice, for both APOE3 and APOE4

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