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Fig. 2 | Molecular Neurodegeneration

Fig. 2

From: VGF-derived peptide TLQP-21 modulates microglial function through C3aR1 signaling pathways and reduces neuropathology in 5xFAD mice

Fig. 2

TLQP-21 induces morphological changes and increases Aβ phagocytosis in primary microglia. a, Flowchart shows streamlined isolation of primary microglia from C57BL/6 J P0-P3 pups. b, Percentage of IBA1 positive cells in primary microglial cultures (an expression of purity). c, Representative gray-level images of primary microglia following the different treatments (1 μM TLQP-21, TLQP-R21A or C3aSA for 1 h). Scale bar = 200 μm. d, Representative images of human fluorescent synthetic Aβ (Anaspec, green) phagocytosed by primary microglia (red) after treatment with peptide. Scale bar = 50 μm. e, Top panel shows the quantification of microglial cells with at least one Aβ aggregate in their cell body (expressed as % control); n = 3 photomicrographs/well, 6 wells/group, and N = 2 independent experiments (data presented are the average of both experiments). Bottom panel shows the quantification of microglial cells with at least one latex bead in their cell body (expressed as % control); n = 4–7 photomicrographs/well, 4–5 wells/group, and N = 2 independent experiments (data presented are the average of both experiments). Error bars represent means ± SEM. Statistical analyses were performed using a One-Way ANOVA followed by a Tukey’s post-hoc test, *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001

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