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Table 1 Demographic and clinical characteristics of the Alzheimer’s disease patient group and control groups

From: Mitochondrial complex I abnormalities is associated with tau and clinical symptoms in mild Alzheimer’s disease

  Alzheimer’s disease Normal Control Normal range
Total
(n = 32)
Subgroup for analysis between [18F] BCPP and [11C]PBB3 PET
(n = 16)
[18F] BCPP PET
(n = 17)
[11C]PBB3 PET
(n = 18)
Age (years) 71.1 ± 8.3 71.3 ± 5.4 66.6 ± 9.4 69.5 ± 8.8  
Men/women (number) 11/21 4/12 10/7 8/10  
Disease duration (years) 2.8 ± 1.1 2.4 ± 0.8    
Clinical Dementia Rating (0/0.5/1) 0/20/12 0/12/4 17/0/0 18/0/0  
Mini-Mental State Examination (/30) 22.2 ± 4.1 22.8 ± 3.7 27.5 ± 1.9 27.4 ± 1.9 > 23
Wechsler Memory Scale-Revise logical memory II (delayed recall) (story A and B) (/50) 5.4 ± 5.3 6.8 ± 5.8    > 11
Frontal Assessment Battery (/18) 10.1 ± 2.6 10.7 ± 2.0    
Self-rating Depression Scale (/100) 36.9 ± 8.6 37.6 ± 8.3    < 60
Regional [18F] BCPP-EF standardized uptake value ratio (Braak I-II / III-IV/ V-VI ROI) 0.59 ± 0.06/
0.85 ± 0.05/
0.89 ± 0.04
0.61 ± 0.04/
0.84 ± 0.03/
0.88 ± 0.03
0.63 ± 0.03/0.89 ± 0.02/0.93 ± 0.03   
Regional [11C]PBB3 PET binding potential (Braak I-II / III-IV/ V-VI ROI) 0.25 ± 0.08/
0.38 ± 0.13/
0.31 ± 0.11
0.25 ± 0.08/
0.38 ± 0.13/
0.31 ± 0.11
  0.16 ± 0.07/
0.22 ± 0.09/
0.17 ± 0.08
 
Regional [11C] PiB PET standardized uptake value ratio (Braak I-II / III-IV/ V-VI ROI) 1.31 ± 0.17/
1.69 ± 0.24/
1.78 ± 0.25
1.39 ± 0.17/
1.67 ± 0.25/
1.78 ± 0.24
   
[11C] PiB PET global cortical standardized uptake value ratio 1.88 ± 0.24 1.89 ± 0.21    < 1.4
[11C]PBB3 PET global cortical binding potential 0.38 ± 0.11 0.38 ± 0.11   0.17 ± 0.05  
Cerebrospinal fluid      
Total tau (pg/ml) 712.1 ± 207.2     < 1200
Phospho-tau (pg/ml) 86.7 ± 26.1     < 50
  1. Data are presented as mean ± SD (range)
  2. To confirm tau pathology, sixteen out of thirty-two patients completed [11C]PBB3 PET scan. The rest of sixteen patients underwent cerebrospinal fluid tests