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  1. The identification of factors that compromise neurogenesis is aimed at improving stem cell-based approaches in the field of regenerative medicine. Interferon gamma (IFNγ) is a main pro-inflammatory cytokine an...

    Authors: Janine Walter, Silke D Honsek, Sebastian Illes, Jennifer M Wellen, Hans-Peter Hartung, Christine R Rose and Marcel Dihné

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2011 6:18

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Fibrillar amyloid β (fAβ) peptide is the major component of Aβ plaques in the brains of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. Inflammatory mediators have previously been proposed to be drivers of Aβ pathology in ...

    Authors: Paramita Chakrabarty, Amanda Herring, Carolina Ceballos-Diaz, Pritam Das and Todd E Golde

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2011 6:16

    Content type: Short report

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  3. Several familial Alzheimer disease (FAD) mutations within the transmembrane region of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) increase the Aβ42/40 ratio without increasing total Aβ production. In the present study, w...

    Authors: Kengo Uemura, Katherine C Farner, Navine Nasser-Ghodsi, Phill Jones and Oksana Berezovska

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2011 6:15

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Amyloid beta (Aβ) is the main agent responsible for the advent and progression of Alzheimer's disease. This peptide can at least partially antagonize nerve growth factor (NGF) signalling in neurons, which may ...

    Authors: Pedro J Chacon, Rosa Garcia-Mejias and Alfredo Rodriguez-Tebar

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2011 6:14

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Thrombolytic therapy with tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) benefits patients with acute ischemic stroke. However, tPA increases the risk for intracerebral bleeding and enhances post-ischemic neuronal injury ...

    Authors: Huang Guo, Theresa M Barrett, Zhihui Zhong, José A Fernández, John H Griffin, Robert S Freeman and Berislav V Zlokovic

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2011 6:13

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Tau protein is the principal component of the neurofibrillary tangles found in Alzheimer's disease, where it is hyperphosphorylated on serine and threonine residues, and recently phosphotyrosine has been demon...

    Authors: Timothy ME Scales, Pascal Derkinderen, Kit-Yi Leung, Helen L Byers, Malcolm A Ward, Caroline Price, Ian N Bird, Timothy Perera, Stuart Kellie, Ritchie Williamson, Brian H Anderton and C Hugh Reynolds

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2011 6:12

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Stroke is the world's second leading cause of mortality, with a high incidence of severe morbidity in surviving victims. There are currently relatively few treatment options available to minimize tissue death ...

    Authors: Trent M Woodruff, John Thundyil, Sung-Chun Tang, Christopher G Sobey, Stephen M Taylor and Thiruma V Arumugam

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2011 6:11

    Content type: Review

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  8. Previously we reported 1 μM synthetic human amyloid beta1-42 oligomers induced cofilin dephosphorylation (activation) and formation of cofilin-actin rods within rat hippocampal neurons primarily localized to the ...

    Authors: Richard C Davis, Ian T Marsden, Michael T Maloney, Laurie S Minamide, Marcia Podlisny, Dennis J Selkoe and James R Bamburg

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2011 6:10

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Molecular changes in multiple biological processes contribute to the development of chronic neurodegeneration such as late onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD). To discover how these changes are reflected at the l...

    Authors: Joy X Lei, Cristina G Cassone, Christian Luebbert and Qing Yan Liu

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2011 6:9

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized pathologically by the loss of nigrostriatal dopamine neurons that project from the substantia nigra in the midbrain to the putamen and caudate ...

    Authors: Frederick P Bellinger, Miyoko T Bellinger, Lucia A Seale, Andrea S Takemoto, Arjun V Raman, Takanori Miki, Amy B Manning-Boğ, Marla J Berry, Lon R White and G Webster Ross

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2011 6:8

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Dimebon is a retired non-selective antihistamine drug currently being investigated as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Results from several completed clinical trials are mixed...

    Authors: Jun Wang, Mario G Ferruzzi, Merina Varghese, Xianjuan Qian, Alice Cheng, Mathew Xie, Wei Zhao, Lap Ho and Giulio M Pasinetti

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2011 6:7

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Although Parkinson's disease (PD) is generally a sporadic neurological disorder, the discovery of monogenic, hereditable forms of the disease has been crucial in delineating the molecular pathways that lead to...

    Authors: Elisa Greggio, Marco Bisaglia, Laura Civiero and Luigi Bubacco

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2011 6:6

    Content type: Review

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  13. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age-related neurodegenerative disorder associated with brain innate immune activation mainly mediated by microglia. These cells are known to be activated in the brain of AD patie...

    Authors: Jean-Philippe Michaud, Karine L Richard and Serge Rivest

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2011 6:5

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Brimonidine is a common drug for lowering ocular pressure and may directly protect retinal ganglion cells in glaucoma. The disease involves early loss of retinal ganglion cell transport to brain targets follow...

    Authors: Wendi S Lambert, Lupe Ruiz, Samuel D Crish, Larry A Wheeler and David J Calkins

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2011 6:4

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Microglial dysfunction is associated with the pathogenesis and progression of a number of neurodegenerative disorders including HIV associated dementia (HAD). HIV promotion of an M1 antigen presenting cell (APC) ...

    Authors: Jon Salemi, Demian F Obregon, Anthony Cobb, Spenser Reed, Edin Sadic, Jingji Jin, Francisco Fernandez, Jun Tan and Brian Giunta

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2011 6:3

    Content type: Review

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  16. Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by the selective loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN), resulting in tremor, rigidity, and bradykinesia. Although the etiology is unknown, insight ...

    Authors: Alison I Bernstein, Sean P Garrison, Gerard P Zambetti and Karen L O'Malley

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2011 6:2

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Huntington disease (HD) is caused by a polyglutamine expansion of more than 35 units in the huntingtin protein. This expanded repeat length inversely correlates with the age-at-onset (AAO), however, additional...

    Authors: Hong Van B Che, Silke Metzger, Esteban Portal, Carolin Deyle, Olaf Riess and Huu Phuc Nguyen

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2011 6:1

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Generation of the amyloid β (Aβ) peptide of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is differentially regulated through the intracellular trafficking of the amyloid β precursor protein (APP) within the secretory and endocyti...

    Authors: Rachel F Lane, Joshua W Gatson, Scott A Small, Michelle E Ehrlich and Sam Gandy

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2010 5:62

    Content type: Research article

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  19. The voltage-gated sodium channel β2 subunit (Navβ2) is a physiological substrate of BACE1 (β-site APP cleaving enzyme) and γ-secretase, two proteolytic enzymes central to Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis. Prev...

    Authors: Manuel T Gersbacher, Doo Yeon Kim, Raja Bhattacharyya and Dora M Kovacs

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2010 5:61

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Although the cerebellum is considered to be predominantly involved in fine motor control, emerging evidence documents its participation in language, impulsive behavior and higher cognitive functions. While the...

    Authors: Jianmin Chen, Mark L Cohen, Alan J Lerner, Yan Yang and Karl Herrup

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2010 5:60

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Our previous work indicated that novel analogs of choline have cytoprotective effects in vitro that might be useful in neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Furthermore, two lead compound...

    Authors: Roongpetch Keowkase, Marwa Aboukhatwa, Bao-Ling Adam, J Warren Beach, Alvin V Terry Jr, Jerry J Buccafussco and Yuan Luo

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2010 5:59

    Content type: Research article

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  22. The mutation in Huntington's disease is a polyglutamine expansion near the N-terminus of huntingtin. Huntingtin expressed in immortalized neurons is cleaved near the N-terminus to form N-terminal polypeptides ...

    Authors: Kimberly B Kegel, Ellen Sapp, Jonathan Alexander, Patrick Reeves, Dorothee Bleckmann, Linsday Sobin, Nicholas Masso, Antonio Valencia, Hyunkyung Jeong, Dimitri Krainc, James Palacino, Daniel Curtis, Rainer Kuhn, Claudia Betschart, Miguel Sena-Esteves, Neil Aronin…

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2010 5:58

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Age-related neurodegenerative diseases share a number of important pathological features, such as accumulation of misfolded proteins as amyloid oligomers and fibrils. Recent evidence suggests that soluble amyl...

    Authors: Rakez Kayed, Isabel Canto, Leonid Breydo, Suhail Rasool, Tamas Lukacsovich, Jessica Wu, Ricardo Albay III, Anna Pensalfini, Stephen Yeung, Elizabeth Head, J Lawrence Marsh and Charles Glabe

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2010 5:57

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Accumulation of filamentous α-synuclein as Lewy bodies is a hallmark of Parkinson's disease. To identify the mechanisms involved in α-synuclein assembly and determine whether the assemblies are cytotoxic, we d...

    Authors: Peizhou Jiang, Ming Gan, Abdul Shukkur Ebrahim, Wen-Lang Lin, Heather L Melrose and Shu-Hui C Yen

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2010 5:56

    Content type: Research article

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  25. The pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is associated with the accumulation of aggregated forms of the α-synuclein (αSN) protein. An early event in the neuropathology o...

    Authors: Clive Bate, Steve Gentleman and Alun Williams

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2010 5:55

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency (TD) causes mild impairment of oxidative metabolism and region-selective neuronal loss in the central nervous system (CNS). TD in animals has been used to model aging-associate...

    Authors: Shuchen Lee, Guang Yang, Yue Yong, Ying Liu, Liyun Zhao, Jing Xu, Xiaomin Zhang, Yanjie Wan, Chun Feng, Zhiqin Fan, Yong Liu, Jia Luo and Zun-Ji Ke

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2010 5:54

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Age-related functional decline of the nervous system is consistently observed, though cellular and molecular events responsible for this decline remain largely unknown. One of the most prevalent age-related fu...

    Authors: Benjamin Fu, Colleen Le Prell, Dwayne Simmons, Debin Lei, Angela Schrader, Amelia B Chen and Jianxin Bao

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2010 5:53

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Transactive response DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) is the pathological protein found in frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitin positive inclusions and in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. In diseased ...

    Authors: Antonella Caccamo, Andrea Magrí and Salvatore Oddo

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2010 5:51

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Nucleotide duplications in exon 4 of the ferritin light polypeptide (FTL) gene cause the autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disease neuroferritinopathy or hereditary ferritinopathy (HF). Pathologic examinati...

    Authors: Ana G Barbeito, Thierry Levade, Marie B Delisle, Bernardino Ghetti and Ruben Vidal

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2010 5:50

    Content type: Research article

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  30. The phosphatase PTEN governs the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway which is arguably the most important pro-survival pathway in neurons. Recently, PTEN has also been implicated in multiple...

    Authors: Young-Don Kwak, Tao Ma, Shiyong Diao, Xue Zhang, Yaomin Chen, Janet Hsu, Stuart A Lipton, Eliezer Masliah, Huaxi Xu and Francesca-Fang Liao

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2010 5:49

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Tau hyperphosphorylation and aggregation to form intracellular neurofibrillar tangles is prevalent in a number of tauopathies. Thus there is current interest in the mechanisms involved in Tau clearance. It was...

    Authors: K Martin Chow, Hanjun Guan and Louis B Hersh

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2010 5:48

    Content type: Research article

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  32. α-Synuclein aggregates in Lewy bodies and plays a central role in the pathogenesis of a group of neurodegenerative disorders, known as "Synucleinopathies", including Parkinson's disease. Parkin mutations resul...

    Authors: Preeti J Khandelwal, Sonya B Dumanis, Li Rebekah Feng, Kathleen Maguire-Zeiss, GW Rebeck, Hilal A Lashuel and Charbel EH Moussa

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2010 5:47

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Although increasing evidence has indicated that brain insulin dysfunction is a risk factor for Alzheimer disease (AD), the underlying mechanisms by which insulin deficiency may impact the development of AD are...

    Authors: Xu Wang, Wei Zheng, Jing-Wei Xie, Tao Wang, Si-Ling Wang, Wei-Ping Teng and Zhan-You Wang

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2010 5:46

    Content type: Research article

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  34. It has traditionally been thought that the pathological accumulation of tau in Alzheimer's disease and other tauopathies facilitates neurodegeneration, which in turn leads to cognitive impairment. However, rec...

    Authors: John C O'Leary III, Qingyou Li, Paul Marinec, Laura J Blair, Erin E Congdon, Amelia G Johnson, Umesh K Jinwal, John Koren III, Jeffrey R Jones, Clara Kraft, Melinda Peters, Jose F Abisambra, Karen E Duff, Edwin J Weeber, Jason E Gestwicki and Chad A Dickey

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2010 5:45

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Apolipoprotein E (apoE) is a major cholesterol transport protein found in association with brain amyloid from Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and the ε4 allele of apoE is a genetic risk factor for AD. Previous ...

    Authors: Sokreine Suon, Jie Zhao, Stephanie A Villarreal, Nikesh Anumula, Mali Liu, Linda M Carangia, John J Renger and Celina V Zerbinatti

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2010 5:44

    Content type: Research article

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  36. The pathological hallmarks of Parkinson's disease (PD) include the presence of alpha-synuclein (α-syn) rich Lewy bodies and neurites and the loss of dopaminergic (DA) neurons of the substantia nigra (SN). Anim...

    Authors: James B Koprich, Tom H Johnston, M Gabriela Reyes, Xuan Sun and Jonathan M Brotchie

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2010 5:43

    Content type: Research article

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  37. Overexpression of alpha-synuclein (α-SYN), a protein which plays an important role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD), triggers microglial activation and adaptive immune responses, and leads to ne...

    Authors: Shuwen Cao, Shaji Theodore and David G Standaert

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2010 5:42

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Progranulin (PGRN) encoded by the GRN gene, is a secreted glycoprotein growth factor that has been implicated in many physiological and pathophysiological processes. PGRN haploinsufficiency caused by autosomal do...

    Authors: Babykumari P Chitramuthu, David C Baranowski, Denis G Kay, Andrew Bateman and Hugh PJ Bennett

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2010 5:41

    Content type: Research article

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  39. Retrograde transport of several transmembrane proteins from endosomes to the trans-Golgi network (TGN) occurs via Rab 5-containing endosomes, mediated by clathrin and the recently characterized retromer comple...

    Authors: Sandra I Vieira, Sandra Rebelo, Hermann Esselmann, Jens Wiltfang, James Lah, Rachel Lane, Scott A Small, Sam Gandy, Edgar F da Cruz e Silva and Odete AB da Cruz e Silva

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2010 5:40

    Content type: Research article

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  40. Active and passive immunotherapy in both amyloid-beta precursor protein (APP) transgenic mice and Alzheimer's Disease (AD) patients have resulted in remarkable reductions in amyloid plaque accumulation, althou...

    Authors: Chera L Maarouf, Ian D Daugs, Tyler A Kokjohn, Walter M Kalback, R Lyle Patton, Dean C Luehrs, Eliezer Masliah, James AR Nicoll, Marwan N Sabbagh, Thomas G Beach, Eduardo M Castaño and Alex E Roher

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2010 5:39

    Content type: Research article

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  41. Mutations in presenilin-1 (Psen1) cause familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD). Both hypoxia and ischemia have been implicated in the pathological cascade that leads to amyloid deposition in AD. Here we investigated ...

    Authors: Rita De Gasperi, Miguel A Gama Sosa, Stella Dracheva and Gregory A Elder

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2010 5:38

    Content type: Research article

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  42. The BACE1 gene encodes the beta-site APP-cleaving enzyme 1 and has been associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). BACE1 is the most important β-secretase responsible for the generation of Alzheimer-associated amy...

    Authors: Annica Sjölander, Henrik Zetterberg, Ulf Andreasson, Lennart Minthon and Kaj Blennow

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2010 5:37

    Content type: Short report

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  43. Cholesterol content of cerebral membranes is tightly regulated by elaborate mechanisms that balance the level of cholesterol synthesis, uptake and efflux. Among the conventional regulatory elements, a recent r...

    Authors: Afia Akram, James Schmeidler, Pavel Katsel, Patrick R Hof and Vahram Haroutunian

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2010 5:36

    Content type: Research article

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  44. X11-family proteins, including X11, X11-like (X11L) and X11-like 2 (X11L2), bind to the cytoplasmic domain of amyloid β-protein precursor (APP) and regulate APP metabolism. Both X11 and X11L are expressed spec...

    Authors: Maho Kondo, Maki Shiono, Genzo Itoh, Norio Takei, Takahide Matsushima, Masahiro Maeda, Hidenori Taru, Saori Hata, Tohru Yamamoto, Yuhki Saito and Toshiharu Suzuki

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2010 5:35

    Content type: Research article

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  45. Alleles of apolipoprotein E (APOE) are the major genetic risk factor for late onset Alzheimer's Disease (LOAD). Recently, an APOE splice variant that retains intron 3 (APOE-I3) was identified. To gain insight int...

    Authors: Laura S Dieter and Steven Estus

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2010 5:34

    Content type: Research article

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  46. Inclusions of TAR DNA binding protein-43 (TDP-43) are the defining histopathological feature of several neurodegenerative diseases collectively referred to as TDP-43 proteinopathies. These diseases are charact...

    Authors: Yong-Jie Zhang, Tania F Gendron, Ya-Fei Xu, Li-Wen Ko, Shu-Hui Yen and Leonard Petrucelli

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2010 5:33

    Content type: Research article

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  47. Pericytes are integral members of the neurovascular unit. Using mouse models lacking endothelial-secreted platelet derived growth factor-B (PDGF-B) or platelet derived growth factor receptor beta (PDGFRβ) on p...

    Authors: Ethan A Winkler, Robert D Bell and Berislav V Zlokovic

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2010 5:32

    Content type: Research article

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  48. BACE1 is a key enzyme in the generation of the Aβ peptide that plays a central role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. While BACE1 is an attractive therapeutic target, its normal physiological functio...

    Authors: Brian D Hitt, Thomas C Jaramillo, Dane M Chetkovich and Robert Vassar

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2010 5:31

    Content type: Research article

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  49. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease, characterised by the formation of insoluble amyloidogenic plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. Beta amyloid (Aβ) peptide is one of the main ...

    Authors: Lana Shabala, Claire Howells, Adrian K West and Roger S Chung

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2010 5:30

    Content type: Research article

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