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  1. Age-related decline of neuronal function is associated with age-related structural changes. In the central nervous system, age-related decline of cognitive performance is thought to be caused by synaptic loss ...

    Authors: Haiyan Shen, Jonathan I Matsui, Debin Lei, Lirong Han, Kevin K Ohlemiller and Jianxin Bao

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2010 5:28

    Content type: Research article

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  2. The pathogenesis of HIV-associated dementia (HAD) is poorly understood. To date, detailed proteomic fingerprinting directly from autopsied brain tissues of HAD and HIV non-dementia patients has not been perfor...

    Authors: Li Zhou, Eve Diefenbach, Ben Crossett, Sieu L Tran, Thomas Ng, Helen Rizos, Rejane Rua, Bin Wang, Amit Kapur, Kaushal Gandhi, Bruce J Brew and Nitin K Saksena

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2010 5:27

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Huntington's disease (HD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder caused by a CAG repeat expansion within the huntingtin gene. Mutant huntingtin protein misfolds and accumulates within neurons where it med...

    Authors: Jonathan H Fox, Teal Connor, Vanita Chopra, Kate Dorsey, Jibrin A Kama, Dorothee Bleckmann, Claudia Betschart, Daniel Hoyer, Stefan Frentzel, Marian DiFiglia, Paolo Paganetti and Steven M Hersch

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2010 5:26

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Up to the 1950s, there was an ongoing debate about the diversity of hereditary optic neuropathies, in particular as to whether all inherited optic atrophies can be ascribed to Leber's hereditary optic neuropat...

    Authors: Nico Fuhrmann, Simone Schimpf, York Kamenisch, Beate Leo-Kottler, Christiane Alexander, Georg Auburger, Eberhart Zrenner, Bernd Wissinger and Marcel V Alavi

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2010 5:25

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Hsp90 is a molecular chaperone with important roles in regulating pathogenic transformation. In addition to its well-characterized functions in malignancy, recent evidence from several laboratories suggests a ...

    Authors: Wenjie Luo, Weilin Sun, Tony Taldone, Anna Rodina and Gabriela Chiosis

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2010 5:24

    Content type: Review

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  6. The extent to which the effect of risk factors on cognitive ageing is dependent on APOE ε4 remains unclear. The objective of this study is to examine whether APOE ε4 allele modifies the association between hea...

    Authors: Séverine Sabia, Mika Kivimaki, Meena Kumari, Martin J Shipley and Archana Singh-Manoux

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2010 5:23

    Content type: Short report

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  7. Studies have implicated reduced levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the pathogenesis of Huntington's disease. Mutant huntingtin (Htt) protein was previously reported to decrease BDNF gene tra...

    Authors: Bin Ma, Brady P Culver, Gabriele Baj, Enrico Tongiorgi, Moses V Chao and Naoko Tanese

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2010 5:22

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Parkinson's disease (PD) involves the selective damage of dopaminergic neuron cells resulting from the accumulation and fibril formation of alpha-synuclein. Recently, it has been shown that not only full-lengt...

    Authors: Jihoon Kim, Ryuichi Harada, Masaki Kobayashi, Natsuki Kobayashi and Koji Sode

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2010 5:20

    Content type: Research article

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  9. One pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is amyloid plaques, composed primarily of amyloid-β peptide (Aβ). Over-production or diminished clearance of the 42 amino acid form of Aβ (Aβ42) in the bra...

    Authors: Chunjiang Yu, Evelyn Nwabuisi-Heath, Kevin Laxton and Mary Jo LaDu

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2010 5:19

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by a polyglutamine (polyQ) expansion in Huntingtin protein (Htt). PolyQ expansion in Httexp causes selective degeneration of striatal medium spi...

    Authors: Hongyu Wang, Xi Chen, Yuemei Li, Tie-Shan Tang and Ilya Bezprozvanny

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2010 5:18

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Cultured spinal motor neurons are a valuable tool to study basic mechanisms of development, axon growth and pathfinding, and, importantly, to analyze the pathomechanisms underlying motor neuron diseases. Howev...

    Authors: Claudia Fallini, Gary J Bassell and Wilfried Rossoll

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2010 5:17

    Content type: Methodology

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  12. Apolipoprotein E (apoE) is postulated to affect brain Aβ levels through multiple mechanisms--by altering amyloid precursor protein (APP) processing, Aβ degradation, and Aβ clearance. We previously showed that ...

    Authors: S Sakura Minami, Antoinette Cordova, John R Cirrito, Joseph A Tesoriero, Lenard W Babus, Gary C Davis, Sivanesan Dakshanamurthy, R Scott Turner, Daniel TS Pak, G William Rebeck, Mikell Paige and Hyang-Sook Hoe

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2010 5:16

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Evidence indicates that soluble forms of amyloid-β (Aβ) are vasoactive, which may contribute to cerebrovascular dysfunction noted in patients with Alzheimer's Disease and cerebral amyloid angiopathy. The effec...

    Authors: Hans H Dietrich, Chuanxi Xiang, Byung H Han, Gregory J Zipfel and David M Holtzman

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2010 5:15

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Microglia cells are the brain counterpart of macrophages and function as the first defense in the brain. Although they are neuroprotective in the young brain, microglia cells may be primed to react abnormally ...

    Authors: Xiao-Guang Luo, Jian-Qing Ding and Sheng-Di Chen

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2010 5:12

    Content type: Review

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  15. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by protein aggregates, i.e. senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. The ubiquitin-proteasome system has been proposed a role in proteolytic removal of these protein a...

    Authors: Madeleine Zetterberg, Annica Sjölander, Malin von Otter, Mona Seibt Palmér, Sara Landgren, Lennart Minthon, Anders Wallin, Niels Andreasen, Kaj Blennow and Henrik Zetterberg

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2010 5:11

    Content type: Short report

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  16. Alpha-synuclein is a presynaptic protein with a proposed role in neurotransmission and dopamine homeostasis. Abnormal accumulation of α-synuclein aggregates in dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra is d...

    Authors: Mong-Lin Yang, Linda Hasadsri, Wendy S Woods and Julia M George

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2010 5:9

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative damage and the accumulation of somatic mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) have been associated with certain neurodegenerative disorders. Previous studies have also prov...

    Authors: Johanna Krüger, Reetta Hinttala, Kari Majamaa and Anne M Remes

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2010 5:8

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Recent evidence suggests that glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β) is implicated in both sporadic and familial forms of Alzheimer's disease. The transcription factor, p53 also plays a role and has been linked t...

    Authors: Carole J Proctor and Douglas A Gray

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2010 5:7

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Prion diseases are disorders of protein conformation in which PrPC, the normal cellular conformer, is converted to an abnormal, protease-resistant conformer rPrPSc. Approximately 80% of rPrPSc accumulates in neur...

    Authors: Stephen J DeArmond and Krystyna Bajsarowicz

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2010 5:6

    Content type: Review

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  20. Septal cholinergic neurons account for most of the cholinergic innervations of the hippocampus, playing a key role in the regulation of hippocampal synaptic activity. Disruption of the septo-hippocampal pathwa...

    Authors: Oscar M Lazo, Jocelyn C Mauna, Claudia A Pissani, Nibaldo C Inestrosa and Francisca C Bronfman

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2010 5:5

    Content type: Research article

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  21. The presence of amyloid-β (Aβ) deposits in selected brain regions is a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The amyloid deposits have "chaperone molecules" which play critical roles in amyloid formation and t...

    Authors: Margarita C Dinamarca, Juan P Sagal, Rodrigo A Quintanilla, Juan A Godoy, Macarena S Arrázola and Nibaldo C Inestrosa

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2010 5:4

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Soluble amyloid-β (Aβ;) oligomers have been recognized to be early and key intermediates in Alzheimer's disease (AD)-related synaptic dysfunction. Aβ oligomers block hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) an...

    Authors: Waldo Cerpa, Ginny G Farías, Juan A Godoy, Marco Fuenzalida, Christian Bonansco and Nibaldo C Inestrosa

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2010 5:3

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with deposition of amyloid β (Aβ) in the brain, which is reflected by low concentration of the Aβ1-42 peptide in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). There are at least 15 addi...

    Authors: Erik Portelius, Ulf Andreasson, John M Ringman, Katharina Buerger, Jonny Daborg, Peder Buchhave, Oskar Hansson, Andreas Harmsen, Mikael K Gustavsson, Eric Hanse, Douglas Galasko, Harald Hampel, Kaj Blennow and Henrik Zetterberg

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2010 5:2

    Content type: Research article

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  24. The low-density lipoprotein receptor related protein 1 (LRP1) has been implicated in Alzheimer's disease (AD) but its signalling has not been fully evaluated. There is good evidence that the cytoplasmic domain...

    Authors: Yuji Kajiwara, Sonia Franciosi, Nagahide Takahashi, Lisa Krug, James Schmeidler, Kevin Taddei, Vahram Haroutunian, Ulrik Fried, Michelle Ehrlich, Ralph N Martins, Samuel Gandy and Joseph D Buxbaum

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2010 5:1

    Content type: Research article

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  25. The current epidemics of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), and Alzheimer's disease (AD) all represent insulin-resistance diseases. Previous studies linked insulin resistanc...

    Authors: Suzanne M de la Monte, Ming Tong, Margot Lawton and Lisa Longato

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2009 4:54

    Content type: Research article

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  26. ZnT3 is a membrane Zn2+ transporter that is responsible for concentrating Zn2+ into neuronal presynaptic vesicles. Zn2+ homeostasis in the brain is relevant to Alzheimer's disease (AD) because Zn2+ released durin...

    Authors: Nancy Beyer, David TR Coulson, Shirley Heggarty, Rivka Ravid, G Brent Irvine, Jan Hellemans and Janet A Johnston

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2009 4:53

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Environmental enrichment (EE) is known to enhance BDNF levels and neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus. To examine the role of BDNF in modulating EE-mediated adult hippocampal neurogenesis, we conditionally a...

    Authors: Se Hoon Choi, Yun Li, Luis F Parada and Sangram S Sisodia

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2009 4:52

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Recent reports suggest that latrepirdine (Dimebon™, dimebolin), a retired Russian antihistamine, improves cognitive function in aged rodents and in patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease (AD). Howe...

    Authors: John W Steele, Soong H Kim, John R Cirrito, Deborah K Verges, Jessica L Restivo, David Westaway, Paul Fraser, Peter St George Hyslop, Mary Sano, Ilya Bezprozvanny, Michelle E Ehrlich, David M Holtzman and Sam Gandy

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2009 4:51

    Content type: Research article

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  29. N-acylethanolamines (NAEs) are lipids upregulated in response to cell and tissue injury and are involved in cytoprotection. Arachidonylethanolamide (AEA) is a well characterized NAE that is an endogenous ligan...

    Authors: R Scott Duncan, Kent D Chapman and Peter Koulen

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2009 4:50

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Parkinson's disease (PD) results from the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and the consequent deficit of dopamine released in the striatum. Current oral dopamine replacement or surg...

    Authors: Torsten Falk, Shiling Zhang and Scott J Sherman

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2009 4:49

    Content type: Short report

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  31. Synapse loss is an early and invariant feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and there is a strong correlation between the extent of synapse loss and the severity of dementia. Accordingly, it has been proposed t...

    Authors: Ganesh M Shankar and Dominic M Walsh

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2009 4:48

    Content type: Review

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  32. While peripheral immune access to the central nervous system (CNS) is restricted and tightly controlled, the CNS is capable of dynamic immune and inflammatory responses to a variety of insults. Infections, tra...

    Authors: Tamy C Frank-Cannon, Laura T Alto, Fiona E McAlpine and Malú G Tansey

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2009 4:47

    Content type: Review

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  33. Variations in sortilin-related receptor (SORL1) expression and function have been implicated in Alzheimers Disease (AD). Here, to gain insights into SORL1, we evaluated SORL1 expression and splicing as a funct...

    Authors: Karrie E Grear, I-Fang Ling, James F Simpson, Jennifer L Furman, Christopher R Simmons, Shawn L Peterson, Frederick A Schmitt, William R Markesbery, Qiang Liu, Julia E Crook, Steven G Younkin, Guojun Bu and Steven Estus

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2009 4:46

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Cognitive and functional decline with age is correlated with deregulation of intracellular calcium, which can lead to neuronal death in the brain. Previous studies have found protective effects of various calc...

    Authors: Norelle C Wildburger, Avary Lin-Ye, Michelle A Baird, Debin Lei and Jianxin Bao

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2009 4:44

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Hypercholesterolemia causes atherosclerosis in medium to large sized arteries. Cholesterol is less known for affecting the microvasculature and has not been previously reported to induce microvascular patholog...

    Authors: Sonia Franciosi, Miguel A Gama Sosa, Daniel F English, Elizabeth Oler, Twethida Oung, William GM Janssen, Rita De Gasperi, James Schmeidler, Dara L Dickstein, Christoph Schmitz, Sam Gandy, Patrick R Hof, Joseph D Buxbaum and Gregory A Elder

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2009 4:42

    Content type: Research article

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  36. Alzheimer disease (AD) is characterized by senile plaques, which are mainly composed of β amyloid (Aβ) peptides. Aβ is cleaved off from amyloid precursor protein (APP) with consecutive proteolytic processing b...

    Authors: Shuji Matsuda, Yukiko Matsuda and Luciano D'Adamio

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2009 4:41

    Content type: Research article

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  37. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Recently, an increased interest in the role diet plays in the pathology of AD has resulted in a focus on...

    Authors: Steve Pedrini, Carlos Thomas, Hannah Brautigam, James Schmeidler, Lap Ho, Paul Fraser, David Westaway, Peter StGeorge Hyslop, Ralph N Martins, Joseph D Buxbaum, Giulio M Pasinetti, Dara L Dickstein, Patrick R Hof, Michelle E Ehrlich and Sam Gandy

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2009 4:40

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE) is a widely studied zinc-metalloprotease implicated in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus, Alzheimer disease (AD) and varicella zoster virus infection. Despite more tha...

    Authors: Anthony DelleDonne, Naomi Kouri, Lael Reinstatler, Tomoko Sahara, Lilin Li, Ji Zhao, Dennis W Dickson, Nilufer Ertekin-Taner and Malcolm A Leissring

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2009 4:39

    Content type: Methodology

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  39. The nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans has become an intensely studied model organism, and worm studies have made significant contributions to developmental biology and other fields. The experimental advantages...

    Authors: Dawn Teschendorf and Christopher D Link

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2009 4:38

    Content type: Review

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  40. Sporadic Parkinson's disease (sPD) is a nervous system-wide disease that presents with a bradykinetic movement disorder and is frequently complicated by depression and cognitive impairment. sPD likely has mult...

    Authors: Charles R Arthur, Stephanie L Morton, Lisa D Dunham, Paula M Keeney and James P Bennett Jr

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2009 4:37

    Content type: Research article

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  41. The aim of our study was to analyze the differential expression of miRNAs in the brains of BSE-infected cynomolgus macaques as a model for Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncodin...

    Authors: Judith Montag, Reiner Hitt, Lennart Opitz, Walter J Schulz-Schaeffer, Gerhard Hunsmann and Dirk Motzkus

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2009 4:36

    Content type: Short report

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  42. Apolipoprotein E allele ε4 (apoE4) is a strong risk factor for developing Alzheimer's disease (AD). Secreted apoE has a critical function in redistributing lipids among central nervous system cells to maintain...

    Authors: Toshiyuki Nakamura, Atsushi Watanabe, Takahiro Fujino, Takashi Hosono and Makoto Michikawa

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2009 4:35

    Content type: Research article

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