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  1. Missense mutations and multiplications of the α-synuclein gene cause autosomal dominant familial Parkinson's disease (PD). α-Synuclein protein is also a major component of Lewy bodies, the hallmark pathological i...

    Authors: João Paulo L Daher, Mingyao Ying, Rebecca Banerjee, Rebecca S McDonald, Myriam Dumas Hahn, Lichuan Yang, M Flint Beal, Bobby Thomas, Valina L Dawson, Ted M Dawson and Darren J Moore

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2009 4:34

    Content type: Research article

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  2. The abnormal accumulation of amyloid-beta peptide is believed to cause malfunctioning of neurons in the Alzheimer's disease brain. Amyloid-beta exists in different assembly forms in the aging mammalian brain i...

    Authors: Rina Yamin, Cheng Zhao, Peter B O'Connor, Ann C McKee and Carmela R Abraham

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2009 4:33

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites constitute the cardinal neuropathological features of both Parkinson's disease (PD) and Lewy body dementia (LBD). Whereas α-synuclein has been found to be the major component of t...

    Authors: Bo Su, Haihua Liu, Xinglong Wang, Shu G Chen, Sandra L Siedlak, Eisaku Kondo, Raymond Choi, Atsushi Takeda, Rudy J Castellani, George Perry, Mark A Smith, Xiongwei Zhu and Hyoung-gon Lee

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2009 4:32

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Correction to Nural H, He P, Beach T, Sue L, Xia W, Shen Y. Disassembled DJ-1 high molecular weight complex in cortex mitochondria from Parkinson's disease patients Molecular Neurodegeneration 2009, 4:23.

    Authors: Zhenyu Zhong, Hikmet Nural, Ping He, Gina Civarella, Thomas Beach, Lucia Sue, Charles Adler, Holly Shill, John Caviness, Weiming Xia and Yong Shen

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2009 4:30

    Content type: Erratum

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    The original article was published in Molecular Neurodegeneration 2009 4:23

  5. Recent studies of inherited neurodegenerative disorders have suggested a linkage between the propensity toward aggregation of mutant protein and disease onset. This is particularly apparent for polyglutamine (...

    Authors: Keizo Sugaya and Shiro Matsubara

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2009 4:29

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Brain tissue from patients with Alzheimer's disease has shown an increase of phosphorylation of Tyr-682, located on the conserved Y682ENPTY motif, and Thr-668 residues, both in the intracellular domain (AID) o...

    Authors: Robert Tamayev, Dawang Zhou and Luciano D'Adamio

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2009 4:28

    Content type: Research article

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  7. It has been hypothesized that reduced axonal transport contributes to the degeneration of neuronal processes in Parkinson's disease (PD). Mitochondria supply the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) needed to support ...

    Authors: Patricia A Trimmer, Kathleen M Schwartz, M Kathleen Borland, Luis De Taboada, Jackson Streeter and Uri Oron

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2009 4:26

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Despite a comprehensive mapping of the Parkinson's disease (PD)-related mRNA and protein leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) in the mammalian brain, its physiological function in healthy individuals remains e...

    Authors: Javorina Milosevic, Sigrid C Schwarz, Vera Ogunlade, Anne K Meyer, Alexander Storch and Johannes Schwarz

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2009 4:25

    Content type: Research article

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  9. While numerous hypotheses have been proposed to explain the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, the theory of oxidative stress has received considerable support. Alt...

    Authors: Kristen A Malkus, Elpida Tsika and Harry Ischiropoulos

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2009 4:24

    Content type: Review

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  10. The PARK7 gene encodes a protein, DJ-1, with several functions such as protection of cells from oxidative stress, sperm maturation and fertilization, and chaperone activity. Mutations in the PARK7 gene are ass...

    Authors: Hikmet Nural, Ping He, Thomas Beach, Lucia Sue, Weiming Xia and Yong Shen

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2009 4:23

    Content type: Research article

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  11. The lipoprotein receptor system in the hippocampus is intimately involved in the modulation of synaptic transmission and plasticity. The association of specific apoE isoform expression with human neurodegenera...

    Authors: Kimberly M Korwek, Justin H Trotter, Mary Jo LaDu, Patrick M Sullivan and Edwin J Weeber

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2009 4:21

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Calcium is a key signaling ion involved in many different intracellular and extracellular processes ranging from synaptic activity to cell-cell communication and adhesion. The exact definition at the molecular...

    Authors: Philippe Marambaud, Ute Dreses-Werringloer and Valérie Vingtdeux

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2009 4:20

    Content type: Review

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  13. The γ-secretase complex is a major therapeutic target for the prevention and treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Previous studies have shown that treatment of young APP mice with specific inhibitors of γ-secreta...

    Authors: Monica Garcia-Alloza, Meenakshi Subramanian, Diana Thyssen, Laura A Borrelli, Abdul Fauq, Pritam Das, Todd E Golde, Bradley T Hyman and Brian J Bacskai

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2009 4:19

    Content type: Research article

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  14. The low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) plays critical roles in lipid metabolism, cell survival, and the clearance of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide. Functional soluble LRP1 (sLRP1) has been dete...

    Authors: Qiang Liu, Juan Zhang, Hien Tran, Marcel M Verbeek, Karina Reiss, Steven Estus and Guojun Bu

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2009 4:17

    Content type: Research article

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  15. In AtT-20 cells ACTH secretion is regulated by both Ca2+ and G proteins. We previously demonstrated that calnuc, an EF-hand Ca2+ binding protein which regulates Alzheimer's β-amyloid precursor protein (APP) bioge...

    Authors: Ping Lin, Thierry Fischer, Christine Lavoie, Haining Huang and Marilyn Gist Farquhar

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2009 4:15

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Accumulating evidence suggests that neurons prone to degeneration in Alzheimer's Disease (AD) exhibit evidence of re-entry into an aberrant mitotic cell cycle. Our laboratory recently demonstrated that, in a g...

    Authors: Kiran Bhaskar, Megan Miller, Alexandra Chludzinski, Karl Herrup, Michael Zagorski and Bruce T Lamb

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2009 4:14

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Since the identification of tau as the main component of neurofibrillary tangles in Alzheimer's disease and related tauopathies, and the discovery that mutations in the tau gene cause frontotemporal dementia, ...

    Authors: Tania F Gendron and Leonard Petrucelli

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2009 4:13

    Content type: Review

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  18. Mutations in the DJ-1 gene have been linked to autosomal recessive familial Parkinson's disease. To understand the function of DJ-1, we determined the DJ-1 expression in both zebrafish and post mortem human br...

    Authors: Stéphanie Baulac, Hope Lu, Jennifer Strahle, Ting Yang, Matthew S Goldberg, Jie Shen, Michael G Schlossmacher, Cynthia A Lemere, Qun Lu and Weiming Xia

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2009 4:12

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Expansion of a polyglutamine repeat at the amino-terminus of huntingtin is the probable cause for Huntington's disease, a lethal progressive autosomal-dominant neurodegenerative disorders characterized by impa...

    Authors: Andreas Weiss, Ana Roscic and Paolo Paganetti

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2009 4:11

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Although there is a strong correlation between CAG repeat length and age at onset (AO) of motor symptoms, individual Huntington disease (HD) patients may differ dramatically in onset age and disease manifestat...

    Authors: Elahe Taherzadeh-Fard, Carsten Saft, Jürgen Andrich, Stefan Wieczorek and Larissa Arning

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2009 4:10

    Content type: Short report

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  21. α-Synuclein is a small protein that has special relevance for understanding Parkinson disease and related disorders. Not only is α-synuclein found in Lewy bodies characteristic of Parkinson disease, but also m...

    Authors: Mark R Cookson

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2009 4:9

    Content type: Review

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  22. Midbrain dopaminergic neurons are involved in control of emotion, motivation and motor behavior. The loss of one of the subpopulations, substantia nigra pars compacta, is the pathological hallmark of one of th...

    Authors: Kambiz N Alavian and Horst H Simon

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2009 4:6

    Content type: Short report

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  23. Gene microarray technology is an effective tool to investigate the simultaneous activity of multiple cellular pathways from hundreds to thousands of genes. However, because data in the colossal amounts generat...

    Authors: Wei Kong, Xiaoyang Mou, Qingzhong Liu, Zhongxue Chen, Charles R Vanderburg, Jack T Rogers and Xudong Huang

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2009 4:5

    Content type: Methodology

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  24. Huntington's disease (HD) is one of the most common autosomal dominant inherited, neurodegenerative disorders. It is characterized by progressive motor, emotional and cognitive dysfunction. In addition metabol...

    Authors: Patrick Weydt, Selma M Soyal, Cinzia Gellera, Stefano DiDonato, Claus Weidinger, Hannes Oberkofler, G Bernhard Landwehrmeyer and Wolfgang Patsch

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2009 4:3

    Content type: Short report

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  25. The amyloid β-peptide is a ubiquitous peptide, which is prone to aggregate forming soluble toxic oligomers and insoluble less-toxic aggregates. The intrinsic and external/environmental factors that determine A...

    Authors: Alicia N Minniti, Daniela L Rebolledo, Paula M Grez, Ricardo Fadic, Rebeca Aldunate, Irene Volitakis, Robert A Cherny, Carlos Opazo, Colin Masters, Ashley I Bush and Nibaldo C Inestrosa

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2009 4:2

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Activation of the liver × receptors (LXRs) by exogenous ligands stimulates the degradation of β-amyloid 1–42 (Aβ42), a peptide that plays a central role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The oxi...

    Authors: Jaya RP Prasanthi, Amber Huls, Sarah Thomasson, Alex Thompson, Eric Schommer and Othman Ghribi

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2009 4:1

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Insulin degrading enzyme (IDE) is implicated in the regulation of amyloid β (Aβ) steady-state levels in the brain, and its deficient expression and/or activity may be a risk factor in sporadic Alzheimer's dise...

    Authors: Ayelén Bulloj, María C Leal, Ezequiel I Surace, Xue Zhang, Huaxi Xu, Maria D Ledesma, Eduardo M Castaño and Laura Morelli

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2008 3:22

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Parkinson's disease, the most common adult neurodegenerative movement disorder, demonstrates a brain-wide pathology that begins pre-clinically with alpha-synuclein aggregates ("Lewy neurites") in processes of ...

    Authors: M Kathleen Borland, Patricia A Trimmer, Jeremy D Rubinstein, Paula M Keeney, KP Mohanakumar, Lei Liu and James P Bennett Jr

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2008 3:21

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Mutations in the presenilin (PSEN) genes are associated with early-onset familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD). Biochemical characterizations and comparisons have revealed that many PSEN mutations alter γ-secretase ...

    Authors: Chera L Maarouf, Ian D Daugs, Salvatore Spina, Ruben Vidal, Tyler A Kokjohn, R Lyle Patton, Walter M Kalback, Dean C Luehrs, Douglas G Walker, Eduardo M Castaño, Thomas G Beach, Bernardino Ghetti and Alex E Roher

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2008 3:20

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Overexpression of α-synuclein (SNCA) in families with multiplication mutations causes parkinsonism and subsequent dementia, characterized by diffuse Lewy Body disease post-mortem. Genetic variability in SNCA cont...

    Authors: Jada Lewis, Heather Melrose, David Bumcrot, Andrew Hope, Cynthia Zehr, Sarah Lincoln, Adam Braithwaite, Zhen He, Sina Ogholikhan, Kelly Hinkle, Caroline Kent, Ivanka Toudjarska, Klaus Charisse, Ravi Braich, Rajendra K Pandey, Michael Heckman…

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2008 3:19

    Content type: Methodology

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  31. Chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan (NG2) expressing cells, morphologically characterized by multi-branched processes and small cell bodies, are the 4th commonest cell population of non-neuronal cell type in the ce...

    Authors: Ya Jun Wu, Ya Fang Tang, Zhi Cheng Xiao, Zhen Min Bao and Bei Ping He

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2008 3:18

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Transcriptional dysregulation is an early, key pathogenic mechanism in Huntington's disease (HD). Therefore, gene expression analyses have biomarker potential for measuring therapeutic efficacy in pre-clinical...

    Authors: Caroline L Benn, Helen Fox and Gillian P Bates

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2008 3:17

    Content type: Methodology

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  33. The multifunctional protein vitronectin is present within the deposits associated with Alzheimer disease (AD), age-related macular degeneration (AMD), atherosclerosis, systemic amyloidoses, and glomerulonephri...

    Authors: Thuzar M Shin, J Mario Isas, Chia-Ling Hsieh, Rakez Kayed, Charles G Glabe, Ralf Langen and Jeannie Chen

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2008 3:16

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Dimebon is an antihistamine compound with a long history of clinical use in Russia. Recently, Dimebon has been proposed to be useful for treating neurodegenerative disorders. It has demonstrated efficacy in ph...

    Authors: Jun Wu, Qin Li and Ilya Bezprozvanny

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2008 3:15

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Familial Alzheimer's disease-linked variants of presenilin (PSEN1 and PSEN2) contribute to the pathophysiology of disease by both gain-of-function and loss-of-function mechanisms. Deletions of PSEN1 and PSEN2 in ...

    Authors: Károly Mirnics, Eric M Norstrom, Krassimira Garbett, Se Hoon Choi, Xiaoqiong Zhang, Philip Ebert and Sangram S Sisodia

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2008 3:14

    Content type: Research article

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  36. Alzheimer disease (AD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disease that is characterized by progressive memory loss. Pathological markers of AD include neurofibrillary tangles, accumulation of amyloid-β plaques, ne...

    Authors: Kathryn J Bryan, Xiongwei Zhu, Peggy L Harris, George Perry, Rudy J Castellani, Mark A Smith and Gemma Casadesus

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2008 3:13

    Content type: Short report

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  37. Regulated intramembrane proteolysis of the β-amyloid precursor protein by the γ-secretase yields two peptides. One, amyloid-β, is the major component of the amyloid plaques found in Alzheimer's disease patient...

    Authors: Luca Giliberto, Dawang Zhou, Richard Weldon, Elena Tamagno, Pasquale De Luca, Massimo Tabaton and Luciano D'Adamio

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2008 3:12

    Content type: Research article

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  38. A number of studies have shown that increased APP levels, resulting from either a genomic locus duplication or alteration in APP regulatory sequences, can lead to development of early-onset dementias, including A...

    Authors: Neha Patel, David Hoang, Nathan Miller, Sara Ansaloni, Qihong Huang, Jack T Rogers, Jeremy C Lee and Aleister J Saunders

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2008 3:10

    Content type: Short report

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  39. Abnormalities of microtubule-associated protein tau play a central role in neurofibrillary degeneration in several neurodegenerative disorders that collectively called tauopathies. Six isoforms of tau are expr...

    Authors: Fei Liu and Cheng-Xin Gong

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2008 3:8

    Content type: Review

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  40. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is commonly used to investigate mechanisms of autoimmune-mediated damage to oligodendrocytes, myelin, and axons in multiple sclerosis (MS). Four distinct autoimm...

    Authors: Dusanka S Skundric, Rujuan Dai, Vaagn L Zakarian and Weili Zhou

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2008 3:7

    Content type: Research article

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