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  1. Content type: Review

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is an incurable and debilitating chronic progressive neurodegenerative disorder which is the leading cause of dementia worldwide. AD is a heterogeneous and multifactorial disorder, his...

    Authors: Syed Faraz Kazim and Khalid Iqbal

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2016 11:50

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  2. Content type: Short report

    α-synucleinopathy emerges quite early in olfactory structures such as the olfactory bulb and anterior olfactory nucleus (OB/AON) in Parkinson's disease. This may contribute to smell impairments years before th...

    Authors: Daniel M. Mason, Negin Nouraei, Deepti B. Pant, Kristin M. Miner, Daniel F. Hutchison, Kelvin C. Luk, John F. Stolz and Rehana K. Leak

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2016 11:49

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    The Erratum to this article has been published in Molecular Neurodegeneration 2016 11:57

  3. Content type: Review

    Immunization against amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides deposited in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) has shown considerable therapeutic effect in animal models however, the translation into human Alzheimer’s patients is challen...

    Authors: Holger Cynis, Jeffrey L. Frost, Helen Crehan and Cynthia A. Lemere

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2016 11:48

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  4. Content type: Research article

    Neurons are highly polarized cells in which asymmetric axonal-dendritic distribution of proteins is crucial for neuronal function. Loss of polarized distribution of the axonal protein tau is an early sign of A...

    Authors: Peter Dongmin Sohn, Tara E. Tracy, Hye-In Son, Yungui Zhou, Renata E. P. Leite, Bruce L. Miller, William W. Seeley, Lea T. Grinberg and Li Gan

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2016 11:47

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  5. Content type: Research article

    Progranulin (PGRN) is a secreted growth factor important for neuronal survival and may do so, in part, by regulating lysosome homeostasis. Mutations in the PGRN gene (GRN) are a common cause of frontotemporal lob...

    Authors: Christopher J. Holler, Georgia Taylor, Zachary T. McEachin, Qiudong Deng, William J. Watkins, Kathryn Hudson, Charles A. Easley, William T. Hu, Chadwick M. Hales, Wilfried Rossoll, Gary J. Bassell and Thomas Kukar

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2016 11:46

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  6. Content type: Research article

    The aggregation of amyloid-β (Aβ) into insoluble plaques is a hallmark pathology of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Previous work has shown increasing serotonin levels with selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor (S...

    Authors: Jonathan R. Fisher, Clare E. Wallace, Danielle L. Tripoli, Yvette I. Sheline and John R. Cirrito

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2016 11:45

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  7. Content type: Methodology

    To date, there are no effective disease-modifying treatments for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). In order to develop new therapeutics for stages where they are most likely to be effective, it is important to identif...

    Authors: Claire S. Harwell and Michael P. Coleman

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2016 11:44

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  8. Content type: Research article

    Pathological Golgi fragmentation represents a constant pre-clinical feature of many neurodegenerative diseases including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) but its molecular mechanisms remain hitherto unclear.

    Authors: Sarah Bellouze, Gilbert Baillat, Dorothée Buttigieg, Pierre de la Grange, Catherine Rabouille and Georg Haase

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2016 11:43

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  9. Content type: Erratum

    Authors: Philipp A. Jaeger, Kurt M. Lucin, Markus Britschgi, Badri Vardarajan, Ruo-Pan Huang, Elizabeth D. Kirby, Rachelle Abbey, Bradley F. Boeve, Adam L. Boxer, Lindsay A. Farrer, NiCole Finch, Neill R. Graff-Radford, Elizabeth Head, Matan Hofree, Ruochun Huang, Hudson Johns…

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2016 11:42

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    The original article was published in Molecular Neurodegeneration 2016 11:31

  10. Content type: Erratum

    Authors: Jia Luo, Sue H. Lee, Lawren VandeVrede, Zhihui Qin, Manel Ben Aissa, John Larson, Andrew F. Teich, Ottavio Arancio, Yohan D’Souza, Ahmed Elharram, Kevin Koster, Leon M. Tai, Mary Jo LaDu, Brian M. Bennett and Gregory R. J. Thatcher

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2016 11:40

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    The original article was published in Molecular Neurodegeneration 2016 11:35

  11. Content type: Review

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia in those over the age of 65. While a numerous of disease-causing genes and risk factors have been identified, the exact etiological mechanisms of A...

    Authors: Juan Yang, Song Li, Xi-Biao He, Cheng Cheng and Weidong Le

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2016 11:39

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  12. Content type: Research article

    Despite the clear physical association between activated astrocytes and amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques, the importance of astrocytes and their therapeutic potential in Alzheimer’s disease remain elusive. Soluble Aβ ag...

    Authors: Sofia Söllvander, Elisabeth Nikitidou, Robin Brolin, Linda Söderberg, Dag Sehlin, Lars Lannfelt and Anna Erlandsson

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2016 11:38

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  13. Content type: Research article

    The accumulation, aggregation and deposition of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides in the brain are central to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Alzheimer’s disease risk increases significantly in individuals...

    Authors: Yuan Fu, Jing Zhao, Yuka Atagi, Henrietta M. Nielsen, Chia-Chen Liu, Honghua Zheng, Mitsuru Shinohara, Takahisa Kanekiyo and Guojun Bu

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2016 11:37

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  14. Content type: Research article

    Mutations in the progranulin gene (GRN) are the most common cause of frontotemporal lobar degeneration with TDP-43 inclusions (FTLD-TDP). TDP-43 pathology is characterized by the hyperphosphorylation of the prote...

    Authors: Carolina Alquezar, Irene G. Salado, Ana de la Encarnación, Daniel I. Pérez, Fermín Moreno, Carmen Gil, Adolfo López de Munain, Ana Martínez and Ángeles Martín-Requero

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2016 11:36

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  15. Content type: Research article

    Clinical failures singularly targeting amyloid-β pathology indicate a critical need for alternative Alzheimer’s disease (AD) therapeutic strategies. The mixed pathology reported in a large population of AD pat...

    Authors: Jia Luo, Sue H. Lee, Lawren VandeVrede, Zhihui Qin, Manel Ben Aissa, John Larson, Andrew F. Teich, Ottavio Arancio, Yohan D’Souza, Ahmed Elharram, Kevin Koster, Leon M. Tai, Mary Jo LaDu, Brian M. Bennett and Gregory R. J. Thatcher

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2016 11:35

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    The Erratum to this article has been published in Molecular Neurodegeneration 2016 11:40

  16. Content type: Methodology

    Apoptosis takes place in naturally occurring neuronal death, but also in aging, neurodegenerative disorders, and traumatic brain injuries. Caspase 3 (Casp3) is the most important effector protease in apoptosis...

    Authors: Laura Lossi, Carolina Cocito, Silvia Alasia and Adalberto Merighi

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2016 11:34

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  17. Content type: Research article

    A certain number of mutations in the Microtubule-Associated Protein Tau (MAPT) gene have been identified in individuals with high risk to develop neurodegenerative diseases, collectively called tauopathies. The m...

    Authors: Ghulam Jeelani Pir, Bikash Choudhary, Eckhard Mandelkow and Eva-Maria Mandelkow

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2016 11:33

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  18. Content type: Methodology

    Tauopathy is characterized by neurofibrillary tangles composed of insoluble hyperphosphorylated tau protein. Currently, cellular models that mimic neurofibrillary tangles in vitro are lacking. Previous studies...

    Authors: Yin Xu, Heidi Martini-Stoica and Hui Zheng

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2016 11:32

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  19. Content type: Research article

    Biological pathways that significantly contribute to sporadic Alzheimer’s disease are largely unknown and cannot be observed directly. Cognitive symptoms appear only decades after the molecular disease onset, ...

    Authors: Philipp A. Jaeger, Kurt M. Lucin, Markus Britschgi, Badri Vardarajan, Ruo-Pan Huang, Elizabeth D. Kirby, Rachelle Abbey, Bradley F. Boeve, Adam L. Boxer, Lindsay A. Farrer, NiCole Finch, Neill R. Graff-Radford, Elizabeth Head, Matan Hofree, Ruochun Huang, Hudson Johns…

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2016 11:31

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    The Erratum to this article has been published in Molecular Neurodegeneration 2016 11:42

  20. Content type: Research article

    The c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway plays an important role in neuronal pathophysiology. Using JNK inhibitors, we examined involvement of the JNK pathway in cultured rat retinal ganglion cell (...

    Authors: Byung-Jin Kim, Sean M. Silverman, Yang Liu, Robert J. Wordinger, Iok-Hou Pang and Abbot F. Clark

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2016 11:30

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  21. Content type: Research article

    Most sequencing studies in Parkinson’s disease (PD) have focused on either a particular gene, primarily in familial and early onset PD samples, or on screening single variants in sporadic PD cases. To date, th...

    Authors: Bruno A. Benitez, Albert A. Davis, Sheng Chih Jin, Laura Ibanez, Sara Ortega-Cubero, Pau Pastor, Jiyoon Choi, Breanna Cooper, Joel S. Perlmutter and Carlos Cruchaga

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2016 11:29

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  22. Content type: Research article

    α-Synuclein (α-Syn), a pathological hallmark of Parkinson’s disease (PD), has been recognized to induce the production of interleukin-1β in a process that depends, at least in vitro, on nod-like receptor prote...

    Authors: Yan Zhou, Ming Lu, Ren-Hong Du, Chen Qiao, Chun-Yi Jiang, Ke-Zhong Zhang, Jian-Hua Ding and Gang Hu

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2016 11:28

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  23. Content type: Research article

    Huntington’s disease (HD) is an incurable hereditary neurodegenerative disorder, which manifests itself as a loss of GABAergic medium spiny (GABA MS) neurons in the striatum and caused by an expansion of the C...

    Authors: Evgeny D. Nekrasov, Vladimir A. Vigont, Sergey A. Klyushnikov, Olga S. Lebedeva, Ekaterina M. Vassina, Alexandra N. Bogomazova, Ilya V. Chestkov, Tatiana A. Semashko, Elena Kiseleva, Lyubov A. Suldina, Pavel A. Bobrovsky, Olga A. Zimina, Maria A. Ryazantseva, Anton Yu. Skopin, Sergey N. Illarioshkin, Elena V. Kaznacheyeva…

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2016 11:27

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  24. Content type: Research article

    Glaucoma is a complex, multifactorial disease characterised by the loss of retinal ganglion cells and their axons leading to a decrease in visual function. The earliest events that damage retinal ganglion cell...

    Authors: Pete A. Williams, James R. Tribble, Keating W. Pepper, Stephen D. Cross, B Paul Morgan, James E. Morgan, Simon W. M. John and Gareth R. Howell

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2016 11:26

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  25. Content type: Research article

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by motor and non-motor symptoms. The cause of the motor symptoms is the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra with...

    Authors: Milena Pinto, Nadee Nissanka, Susana Peralta, Roberta Brambilla, Francisca Diaz and Carlos T. Moraes

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2016 11:25

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  26. Content type: Research article

    C1q represents the initiating protein of the classical complement cascade, however recent findings indicate pathway independent roles such as developmental pruning of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons. Further...

    Authors: Sean M. Silverman, Byung-Jin Kim, Garreth R. Howell, Joselyn Miller, Simon W. M. John, Robert J. Wordinger and Abbot F. Clark

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2016 11:24

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  27. Content type: Research article

    Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and its key regulator, the inflammasome, are suspected to play a role in the neuroinflammation observed in Alzheimer’s disease (AD); no conclusive data are nevertheless available in ...

    Authors: Marina Saresella, Francesca La Rosa, Federica Piancone, Martina Zoppis, Ivana Marventano, Elena Calabrese, Veronica Rainone, Raffaello Nemni, Roberta Mancuso and Mario Clerici

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2016 11:23

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  28. Content type: Research article

    Increasing evidence suggests a potential therapeutic benefit of vitamin D supplementation against Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Although studies have shown improvements in cognitive performance and decreases in ma...

    Authors: Véréna Landel, Pascal Millet, Kévin Baranger, Béatrice Loriod and François Féron

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2016 11:22

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  29. Content type: Research article

    In frontotemporal dementia (FTD) there is a critical lack in the understanding of biological and molecular mechanisms involved in disease pathogenesis. The heterogeneous genetic features associated with FTD su...

    Authors: Raffaele Ferrari, Paola Forabosco, Jana Vandrovcova, Juan A. Botía, Sebastian Guelfi, Jason D. Warren, Parastoo Momeni, Michael E. Weale, Mina Ryten and John Hardy

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2016 11:21

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  30. Content type: Erratum

    Authors: Wendy E. Heywood, Daniela Galimberti, Emily Bliss, Ernestas Sirka, Ross W. Paterson, Nadia K. Magdalinou, Miryam Carecchio, Emma Reid, Amanda Heslegrave, Chiara Fenoglio, Elio Scarpini, Jonathan M. Schott, Nick C. Fox, John Hardy, Kailash P. Bhatia, Simon Heales…

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2016 11:20

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    The original article was published in Molecular Neurodegeneration 2015 10:64

  31. Content type: Research article

    The metalloprotease meprin β cleaves the Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) relevant amyloid precursor protein (APP) as a β-secretase reminiscent of BACE-1, however, predominantly generating N-terminally truncated Aβ2-x...

    Authors: Caroline Schönherr, Jessica Bien, Simone Isbert, Rielana Wichert, Johannes Prox, Hermann Altmeppen, Sathish Kumar, Jochen Walter, Stefan F. Lichtenthaler, Sascha Weggen, Markus Glatzel, Christoph Becker-Pauly and Claus U. Pietrzik

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2016 11:19

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  32. Content type: Research article

    Prions and amyloid-β (Aβ) oligomers trigger neurodegeneration by hijacking a poorly understood cellular signal mediated by the prion protein (PrP) at the plasma membrane. In early zebrafish embryos, PrP-1-depe...

    Authors: Emily Sempou, Emiliano Biasini, Alejandro Pinzón-Olejua, David A. Harris and Edward Málaga-Trillo

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2016 11:18

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  33. Content type: Methodology

    While many biological studies can be performed on cell-based systems, the investigation of molecular pathways related to complex human dysfunctions – e.g. neurodegenerative diseases – often requires long-term ...

    Authors: Matteo Cornaglia, Gopalan Krishnamani, Laurent Mouchiroud, Vincenzo Sorrentino, Thomas Lehnert, Johan Auwerx and Martin A. M. Gijs

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2016 11:17

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  34. Content type: Research article

    Alzheimer disease (AD) and other tauopathies develop cerebral intracellular inclusions of hyperphosphorylated tau. Epidemiological and experimental evidence suggests a clear link between type 2 diabetes mellit...

    Authors: Erica Barini, Odetta Antico, Yingjun Zhao, Francesco Asta, Valter Tucci, Tiziano Catelani, Roberto Marotta, Huaxi Xu and Laura Gasparini

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2016 11:16

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  35. Content type: Research article

    A unique feature of the pathological change after spinal cord injury (SCI) is the progressive enlargement of lesion area, which usually results in cavity formation and is accompanied by reactive astrogliosis a...

    Authors: Hong Fan, Kun Zhang, Lequn Shan, Fang Kuang, Kun Chen, Keqing Zhu, Heng Ma, Gong Ju and Ya-Zhou Wang

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2016 11:14

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  36. Content type: Research article

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a motor disease associated with the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta. p53 is a major neuronal pro-apoptotic factor that is at the center of gr...

    Authors: Eric Duplan, Cécile Giordano, Frédéric Checler and Cristine Alves da Costa

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2016 11:13

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  37. Content type: Methodology

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) or the internal segment of the globus pallidus (GPi) has been established as a highly effective symptomatic therapy for Parkinson’s disease (PD). A...

    Authors: Affif Zaccaria, Ali Bouamrani, Stephan Chabardès, Michèle El Atifi, Eric Seigneuret, Johannes A. Lobrinus, Michel Dubois-Dauphin, François Berger and Pierre R. Burkhard

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2016 11:12

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  38. Content type: Research article

    Prion diseases are characterized by the accumulation in the central nervous system of an abnormally folded isoform of the prion protein, named PrPSc. Aggregation of PrPSc into oligomers and fibrils is critically ...

    Authors: Thibaut Imberdis, Adeline Ayrolles-Torro, Alysson Duarte Rodrigues, Joan Torrent, Maria Teresa Alvarez-Martinez, Gabor G. Kovacs, Jean-Michel Verdier, Mike Robitzer and Véronique Perrier

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2016 11:11

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  39. Content type: Research article

    A disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs (ADAMTS) proteoglycanases are specialized in the degradation of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans and participate in mechanisms mediating neuropla...

    Authors: Sighild Lemarchant, Yuriy Pomeshchik, Iurii Kidin, Virve Kärkkäinen, Piia Valonen, Sarka Lehtonen, Gundars Goldsteins, Tarja Malm, Katja Kanninen and Jari Koistinaho

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2016 11:10

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    The Erratum to this article has been published in Molecular Neurodegeneration 2016 11:15

  40. Content type: Research article

    Substantial evidence suggests that amyloid-β (Aβ) species induce oxidative stress and cerebrovascular (CV) dysfunction in Alzheimer’s disease (AD), potentially contributing to the progressive dementia of this ...

    Authors: Matthew R. Reynolds, Itender Singh, Tej D. Azad, Brandon B. Holmes, Phillip B. Verghese, Hans H. Dietrich, Marc Diamond, Guojun Bu, Byung Hee Han and Gregory J. Zipfel

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2016 11:9

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  41. Content type: Research article

    Mutations in the fused in sarcoma (FUS) gene have been linked to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). ALS patients with FUS mutations exhibit neuronal cytoplasmic mislocalization of the mutant FUS protein. ALS pa...

    Authors: Su Min Lim, Won Jun Choi, Ki-Wook Oh, Yuanchao Xue, Ji Young Choi, Sung Hoon Kim, Minyeop Nahm, Young-Eun Kim, Jinhyuk Lee, Min-Young Noh, Seungbok Lee, Sejin Hwang, Chang-Seok Ki, Xiang-Dong Fu and Seung Hyun Kim

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2016 11:8

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  42. Content type: Research article

    Despite decades of intensive research, to date, there is no accepted diagnosis for Parkinson’s disease (PD) based on biochemical analysis of blood or CSF. However, neurodegeneration in the brains of PD patient...

    Authors: Nour K. Majbour, Nishant N. Vaikath, Karin D. van Dijk, Mustafa T. Ardah, Shiji Varghese, Louise B. Vesterager, Liliana P. Montezinho, Stephen Poole, Bared Safieh-Garabedian, Takahiko Tokuda, Charlotte E. Teunissen, Henk W. Berendse, Wilma D. J. van de Berg and Omar M. A. El-Agnaf

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2016 11:7

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  43. Content type: Research article

    Mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress and their interplay are core pathological features of Parkinson’s disease. In dopaminergic neurons, monoamines and their metabolites provide an additional source of ...

    Authors: Mária Baranyi, Pier Francesca Porceddu, Flóra Gölöncsér, Szabina Kulcsár, Lilla Otrokocsi, Ágnes Kittel, Annalisa Pinna, Lucia Frau, Paul B. Huleatt, Mui-Ling Khoo, Christina L. L. Chai, Petra Dunkel, Peter Mátyus, Micaela Morelli and Beáta Sperlágh

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2016 11:6

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  44. Content type: Research article

    Lrrk2, a gene linked to Parkinson’s disease, encodes a large scaffolding protein with kinase and GTPase activities implicated in vesicle and cytoskeletal-related processes. At the pres...

    Authors: Elisa Belluzzi, Adriano Gonnelli, Maria-Daniela Cirnaru, Antonella Marte, Nicoletta Plotegher, Isabella Russo, Laura Civiero, Susanna Cogo, Maria Perèz Carrion, Cinzia Franchin, Giorgio Arrigoni, Mariano Beltramini, Luigi Bubacco, Franco Onofri, Giovanni Piccoli and Elisa Greggio

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2016 11:1

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  45. Content type: Research article

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most frequent form of dementia in the elderly and no effective treatment is currently available. The mechanisms triggering AD onset and progression are still imperfectly dissect...

    Authors: Mickael Audrain, Romain Fol, Patrick Dutar, Brigitte Potier, Jean-Marie Billard, Julien Flament, Sandro Alves, Marie-Anne Burlot, Gaelle Dufayet-Chaffaud, Alexis-Pierre Bemelmans, Julien Valette, Philippe Hantraye, Nicole Déglon, Nathalie Cartier and Jérome Braudeau

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2016 11:5

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  46. Content type: Research article

    The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) has been found to interact with amyloid β (Aβ). Although RAGE does not have any kinase motifs in its cytosolic domain, the interaction between RAGE and A...

    Authors: Yoonhee Kim, Chaeyoung Kim, Sung Min Son, Hyundong Song, Hyun Seok Hong, Sun-ho Han and Inhee Mook-Jung

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2016 11:4

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  47. Content type: Short report

    The discovery that heterozygous missense mutations in the gene encoding triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2) are risk factors for Alzheimer’s disease (AD), with only the apolipoprotein E (A...

    Authors: Amanda Heslegrave, Wendy Heywood, Ross Paterson, Nadia Magdalinou, Johan Svensson, Per Johansson, Annika Öhrfelt, Kaj Blennow, John Hardy, Jonathan Schott, Kevin Mills and Henrik Zetterberg

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2016 11:3

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  48. Content type: Methodology

    Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) is a major cholesterol carrier and plays an important role in maintaining lipid homeostasis both in the periphery and brain. Human APOE gene is polymorphic at two single nucleotides (rs429...

    Authors: Li Zhong, Yong-Zhuang Xie, Tian-Tian Cao, Zongqi Wang, Tingting Wang, Xinxiu Li, Rui-Chi Shen, Huaxi Xu, Guojun Bu and Xiao-Fen Chen

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2016 11:2

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