Dose dependent increase of oxygen radical production induced by soluble Aβ in cultured rat cerebral microvascular cells. To quantify Aβ-induced ROS production in vascular cells, rat cerebral microvascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells were incubated with soluble Aβ (1 and 2 μmol/L) and ROS production was measure using the ROS sensitive dye MitoTracker Red CM-H2XRos (5 μmol/L). (A) Aβ1-40 and (B) Aβ1-42 increase dose-dependently ROS in endothelial ECs) and (C and D) smooth muscle cells (SMCs). * denotes p < 0.05 from control. In SMCs Aβ1-42 has a stronger effect compared to Aβ1-40as indicated by † = p < 0.05. N ≥ four replicates with four cultures per replicate (n ≥ 16). n.s. denotes not significant.