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  1. Disease-associated microglia (DAMs), that surround beta-amyloid plaques, represent a transcriptionally-distinct microglial profile in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Activation of DAMs is dependent on triggering rec...

    Authors: Christel Claes, Emma Pascal Danhash, Jonathan Hasselmann, Jean Paul Chadarevian, Sepideh Kiani Shabestari, Whitney E. England, Tau En Lim, Jorge Luis Silva Hidalgo, Robert C. Spitale, Hayk Davtyan and Mathew Blurton-Jones

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2021 16:50

    Content type: Short report

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  2. Alzheimer disease (AD) prevention trials hold the promise to delay or prevent cognitive decline and dementia onset by intervening before significant neuronal damage occurs. In recent years, the first AD preven...

    Authors: Eric McDade, Jorge J. Llibre-Guerra, David M. Holtzman, John C. Morris and Randall J. Bateman

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2021 16:49

    Content type: Review

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  3. Understanding the long-term effects of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on cognitive function is essential for monitoring the cognitive decline in the elderly population. This study aims to assess the curre...

    Authors: Yu-Hui Liu, Ye-Ran Wang, Qing-Hua Wang, Yang Chen, Xian Chen, Ying Li, Yuan Cen, Cheng Xu, Tian Hu, Xu-Dong Liu, Ling-Li Yang, Si-Jing Li, Xue-Fei Liu, Chun-Mei Liu, Jie Zhu, Wei Li…

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2021 16:48

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Microglia are active modulators of Alzheimer’s disease but their role in relation to amyloid plaques and synaptic changes due to rising amyloid beta is unclear. We add novel findings concerning these relations...

    Authors: Diana P. Benitez, Shenyi Jiang, Jack Wood, Rui Wang, Chloe M. Hall, Carlijn Peerboom, Natalie Wong, Katie M. Stringer, Karina S. Vitanova, Victoria C. Smith, Dhaval Joshi, Takashi Saito, Takaomi C. Saido, John Hardy, Jörg Hanrieder, Bart De Strooper…

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2021 16:47

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Human tauopathies including Alzheimer’s disease (AD) are characterized by alterations in the post-translational modification (PTM) pattern of Tau, which parallel the formation of insoluble Tau aggregates, neur...

    Authors: Maria Bichmann, Nuria Prat Oriol, Ebru Ercan-Herbst, David C. Schöndorf, Borja Gomez Ramos, Vera Schwärzler, Marie Neu, Annabelle Schlüter, Xue Wang, Liang Jin, Chenqi Hu, Yu Tian, Janina S. Ried, Per Haberkant, Laura Gasparini and Dagmar E. Ehrnhoefer

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2021 16:46

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Neuritic plaques in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) brains refer to β-amyloid (Aβ) plaques surrounded by dystrophic neurites (DNs), activated microglia and reactive astrocytes. Most recently, we showed that DNs form ...

    Authors: Md Golam Sharoar, Sarah Palko, Yingying Ge, Takaomi C. Saido and Riqiang Yan

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2021 16:45

    Content type: Research article

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  7. The maintenance of complex dendritic arbors and synaptic transmission are processes that require a substantial amount of energy. Bioenergetic decline is a prominent feature of chronic neurodegenerative disease...

    Authors: Nicolas Belforte, Jessica Agostinone, Luis Alarcon-Martinez, Deborah Villafranca-Baughman, Florence Dotigny, Jorge L. Cueva Vargas and Adriana Di Polo

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2021 16:43

    Content type: Research article

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  8. There is an association between repetitive head injury (RHI) and a pathologic diagnosis of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) characterized by the aggregation of proteins including tau. The underlying mole...

    Authors: Laura Gutierrez-Quiceno, Eric B. Dammer, Ashlyn Grace Johnson, James A. Webster, Rhythm Shah, Duc Duong, Luming Yin, Nicholas T. Seyfried, Victor E. Alvarez, Thor D. Stein, Ann C. McKee and Chadwick M. Hales

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2021 16:40

    Content type: Research article

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  9. For decades, dementia has been characterized by accumulation of waste in the brain and low-grade inflammation. Over the years, emerging studies highlighted the involvement of the immune system in neurodegenera...

    Authors: Hila Ben-Yehuda, Michal Arad, Javier María Peralta Ramos, Efrat Sharon, Giulia Castellani, Shir Ferrera, Liora Cahalon, Sarah Phoebeluc Colaiuta, Tomer-Meir Salame and Michal Schwartz

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2021 16:39

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative movement disorder affecting 1–5% of the general population for which neither effective cure nor early diagnostic tools are available that could tackle the pathol...

    Authors: Alessandro Gialluisi, Mafalda Giovanna Reccia, Nicola Modugno, Teresa Nutile, Alessia Lombardi, Luca Giovanni Di Giovannantonio, Sara Pietracupa, Daniela Ruggiero, Simona Scala, Stefano Gambardella, Licia Iacoviello, Fernando Gianfrancesco, Dario Acampora, Maurizio D’Esposito, Antonio Simeone, Marina Ciullo…

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2021 16:35

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPSs) are common in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and are associated with accelerated cognitive impairment and earlier deaths. This review aims to explore the neural pathoge...

    Authors: Yaojing Chen, Mingxi Dang and Zhanjun Zhang

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2021 16:38

    Content type: Review

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  12. Phosphorylation is one of the most prevalent post-translational modifications found in aggregated tau isolated from Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patient brains. In tauopathies like AD, increased phosphorylation or...

    Authors: Yuxing Xia, Stefan Prokop and Benoit I. Giasson

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2021 16:37

    Content type: Review

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  13. Early challenges to axonal physiology, active transport, and ultrastructure are endemic to age-related neurodegenerative disorders, including those affecting the optic nerve. Chief among these, glaucoma causes...

    Authors: Michael L. Risner, Silvia Pasini, Nolan R. McGrady, Karis B. D’Alessandro, Vincent Yao, Melissa L. Cooper and David J. Calkins

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2021 16:36

    Content type: Research article

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  14. There is increasing evidence that Parkinson’s disease (PD) might start in the gut, thus involving and compromising also the enteric nervous system (ENS). At the clinical onset of the disease the majority of do...

    Authors: Manuela Gries, Anne Christmann, Steven Schulte, Maximilian Weyland, Stephanie Rommel, Monika Martin, Marko Baller, Ralph Röth, Stefanie Schmitteckert, Marcus Unger, Yang Liu, Frederik Sommer, Timo Mühlhaus, Michael Schroda, Jean-Pierre Timmermans, Isabel Pintelon…

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2021 16:34

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Mutations in LRRK2 are the most common cause of familial Parkinson’s disease and typically cause disease in the context of abnormal aggregation and deposition of α-synuclein within affected brain tissue.

    Authors: Souvarish Sarkar, Farah Bardai, Abby L. Olsen, Kelly M. Lohr, Ying-Yi Zhang and Mel B. Feany

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2021 16:33

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Passive immunotherapies targeting Aβ continue to be evaluated as Alzheimer’s disease (AD) therapeutics, but there remains debate over the mechanisms by which these immunotherapies work. Besides the amount of p...

    Authors: Yona Levites, Cory Funk, Xue Wang, Paramita Chakrabarty, Karen N. McFarland, Baxter Bramblett, Veronica O’Neal, Xufei Liu, Thomas Ladd, Max Robinson, Mariet Allen, Minerva M. Carrasquillo, Dennis Dickson, Pedro Cruz, Danny Ryu, Hong-Dong Li…

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2021 16:32

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a complex, age-related neurodegenerative disorder of largely unknown etiology. PD is strongly associated with mitochondrial respiratory dysfunction, which can lead to epigenetic dys...

    Authors: Lilah Toker, Gia T. Tran, Janani Sundaresan, Ole-Bjørn Tysnes, Guido Alves, Kristoffer Haugarvoll, Gonzalo S. Nido, Christian Dölle and Charalampos Tzoulis

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2021 16:31

    Content type: Research article

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  18. The development of blood-based biomarker tests that are accurate and robust for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathology have the potential to aid clinical diagnosis and facilitate enrollment in AD drug trials. We d...

    Authors: Tim West, Kristopher M. Kirmess, Matthew R. Meyer, Mary S. Holubasch, Stephanie S. Knapik, Yan Hu, John H. Contois, Erin N. Jackson, Scott E. Harpstrite, Randall J. Bateman, David M. Holtzman, Philip B. Verghese, Ilana Fogelman, Joel B. Braunstein and Kevin E. Yarasheski

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2021 16:30

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive, neurodegenerative disorder that is characterized by neurodegeneration, cognitive impairment, and an eventual inability to perform daily tasks. The etiology of Alzheim...

    Authors: Mabel Seto, Rebecca L. Weiner, Logan Dumitrescu and Timothy J. Hohman

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2021 16:29

    Content type: Review

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  20. Mitochondrial electron transport chain abnormalities have been reported in postmortem pathological specimens of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). However, it remains unclear how amyloid and tau are associated with mit...

    Authors: Tatsuhiro Terada, Joseph Therriault, Min Su Peter Kang, Melissa Savard, Tharick Ali Pascoal, Firoza Lussier, Cecile Tissot, Yi-Ting Wang, Andrea Benedet, Takashi Matsudaira, Tomoyasu Bunai, Tomokazu Obi, Hideo Tsukada, Yasuomi Ouchi and Pedro Rosa-Neto

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2021 16:28

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common type of dementia, affecting millions of people worldwide; however, no disease-modifying treatments are currently available. Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) h...

    Authors: Gloriia Novikova, Shea J. Andrews, Alan E. Renton and Edoardo Marcora

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2021 16:27

    Content type: Review

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  22. Apolipoprotein E4 (APOE4) is associated with a greater response to neuroinflammation and the risk of developing late-onset Alzheimer’s disease (AD), but the mechanisms for this association are not clear. The acti...

    Authors: Shaowei Wang, Boyang Li, Victoria Solomon, Alfred Fonteh, Stanley I. Rapoport, David A. Bennett, Zoe Arvanitakis, Helena C. Chui, Carol Miller, Patrick M. Sullivan, Hoau-Yan Wang and Hussein N. Yassine

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2021 16:26

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), as a mitochondrial flavoprotein, plays a fundamental role in mitochondrial bioenergetics that is critical for cell survival and also mediates caspase-independent cell death onc...

    Authors: Shuiqiao Liu, Mi Zhou, Zhi Ruan, Yanan Wang, Calvin Chang, Masayuki Sasaki, Veena Rajaram, Andrew Lemoff, Kalyani Nambiar, Jennifer E. Wang, Kimmo J. Hatanpaa, Weibo Luo, Ted M. Dawson, Valina L. Dawson and Yingfei Wang

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2021 16:25

    Content type: Research article

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  24. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Kevin Clayton, Jean Christophe Delpech, Shawn Herron, Naotoshi Iwahara, Maria Ericsson, Takashi Saito, Takaomi C. Saido, Seiko Ikezu and Tsuneya Ikezu

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2021 16:24

    Content type: Correction

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    The original article was published in Molecular Neurodegeneration 2021 16:18

  25. Recently, we and other researchers reported that brain metabolic disorders are implicated in Alzheimer’s disease (AD), a progressive, devastating and incurable neurodegenerative disease. Hence, novel therapeut...

    Authors: Tahir Ali, Shafiq Ur Rehman, Amjad Khan, Haroon Badshah, Noman Bin Abid, Min Woo Kim, Myeung Hoon Jo, Seung Soo Chung, Hyoung-gon Lee, Bart P. F. Rutten and Myeong Ok Kim

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2021 16:23

    Content type: Research article

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  26. The central role of the resident innate immune cells of the brain (microglia) in neurodegeneration has become clear over the past few years largely through genome-wide association studies (GWAS), and has rapid...

    Authors: Lorenza Magno, Tom D. Bunney, Emma Mead, Fredrik Svensson and Magda N. Bictash

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2021 16:22

    Content type: Review

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  27. CD33 is genetically linked to Alzheimer’s disease (AD) susceptibility through differential expression of isoforms in microglia. The role of the human CD33 short isoform (hCD33m), preferentially encoded by an A...

    Authors: Abhishek Bhattacherjee, Jaesoo Jung, Sameera Zia, Madelene Ho, Ghazaleh Eskandari-Sedighi, Chris D. St. Laurent, Kelli A. McCord, Arjun Bains, Gaurav Sidhu, Susmita Sarkar, Jason R. Plemel and Matthew S. Macauley

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2021 16:19

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Recent studies suggest that microglia contribute to tau pathology progression in Alzheimer’s disease. Amyloid plaque accumulation transforms microglia, the primary innate immune cells in the brain, into neurod...

    Authors: Kevin Clayton, Jean Christophe Delpech, Shawn Herron, Naotoshi Iwahara, Maria Ericsson, Takashi Saito, Takaomi C. Saido, Seiko Ikezu and Tsuneya Ikezu

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2021 16:18

    Content type: Research article

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    The Correction to this article has been published in Molecular Neurodegeneration 2021 16:24

  29. The most common mutation in the Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 gene (LRRK2), G2019S, causes familial Parkinson’s Disease (PD) and renders the encoded protein kinase hyperactive. While targeting LRRK2 activity is...

    Authors: Jillian H. Kluss, Melissa Conti Mazza, Yan Li, Claudia Manzoni, Patrick A. Lewis, Mark R. Cookson and Adamantios Mamais

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2021 16:17

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Oxidative stress is a common cause of neurodegeneration and plays a central role in retinal degenerative diseases. Heme oxygenase-1 (HMOX1) is a redox-regulated enzyme that is induced in neurodegenerative dise...

    Authors: Huirong Li, Bo Liu, Lili Lian, Jiajia Zhou, Shengjin Xiang, Yifan Zhai, Yu Chen, Xiaoyin Ma, Wencan Wu and Ling Hou

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2021 16:16

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Emerging evidence indicates that impaired mitophagy-mediated clearance of defective mitochondria is a critical event in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathogenesis. Amyloid-beta (Aβ) metabolism and the microtubule-a...

    Authors: Vicente Roca-Agujetas, Elisabet Barbero-Camps, Cristina de Dios, Petar Podlesniy, Xenia Abadin, Albert Morales, Montserrat Marí, Ramon Trullàs and Anna Colell

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2021 16:15

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Before the deposition of amyloid-beta plaques and the onset of learning memory deficits, patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) experience olfactory dysfunction, typified by a reduced ability to detect, discri...

    Authors: Ming Chen, Yunan Chen, Qingwei Huo, Lei Wang, Shuyi Tan, Afzal Misrani, Jinxiang Jiang, Jian Chen, Shiyuan Chen, Jiawei Zhang, Sidra Tabassum, Jichen Wang, Xi Chen, Cheng Long and Li Yang

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2021 16:14

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Physiological disturbances in cortical network excitability and plasticity are established and widespread in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) patients, including those harb...

    Authors: Emma M. Perkins, Karen Burr, Poulomi Banerjee, Arpan R. Mehta, Owen Dando, Bhuvaneish T. Selvaraj, Daumante Suminaite, Jyoti Nanda, Christopher M. Henstridge, Thomas H. Gillingwater, Giles E. Hardingham, David J. A. Wyllie, Siddharthan Chandran and Matthew R. Livesey

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2021 16:13

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Inherited optic neuropathies are the most common mitochondrial diseases, leading to neurodegeneration involving the irreversible loss of retinal ganglion cells, optic nerve degeneration and central visual loss...

    Authors: Majida Charif, Yvette C. Wong, Soojin Kim, Agnès Guichet, Catherine Vignal, Xavier Zanlonghi, Philippe Bensaid, Vincent Procaccio, Dominique Bonneau, Patrizia Amati-Bonneau, Pascal Reynier, Dimitri Krainc and Guy Lenaers

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2021 16:12

    Content type: Short report

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  35. High-density oligomers of the prion protein (HDPs) have previously been identified in brain tissues of patients with rapidly progressive Alzheimer’s disease (rpAD). The current investigation aims at identifyin...

    Authors: Mohsin Shafiq, Saima Zafar, Neelam Younas, Aneeqa Noor, Berta Puig, Hermann Clemens Altmeppen, Matthias Schmitz, Jakob Matschke, Isidre Ferrer, Markus Glatzel and Inga Zerr

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2021 16:11

    Content type: Research article

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  36. We generated a mouse model of primary microglial dysfunction by deleting two negative immune regulatory genes, Cx3cr1 and Socs3 (in LysM+ cells). This study aimed to understand how primary microglial dysfunction ...

    Authors: Xuan Du, Rosana Penalva, Karis Little, Adrien Kissenpfennig, Mei Chen and Heping Xu

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2021 16:9

    Content type: Research article

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  37. Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is among the most prevalent neurodegenerative diseases, with brain pathology defined by extracellular amyloid beta deposits and intracellular tau aggregates. To aid in research efforts...

    Authors: Brittany S. Ulm, David R. Borchelt and Brenda D. Moore

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2021 16:8

    Content type: Review

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  38. Strokes are becoming less severe due to increased numbers of intensive care units and improved treatments. As patients survive longer, post-stroke cognitive impairment (PSCI) has become a major health public i...

    Authors: Adrien Cogo, Gabrielle Mangin, Benjamin Maïer, Jacques Callebert, Mikael Mazighi, Hughes Chabriat, Jean-Marie Launay, Gilles Huberfeld and Nathalie Kubis

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2021 16:7

    Content type: Research article

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  39. Previous studies have reported that gut microbiota, permeability, short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), and inflammation are altered in Parkinson’s disease (PD), but how these factors are linked and how they contri...

    Authors: Velma T. E. Aho, Madelyn C. Houser, Pedro A. B. Pereira, Jianjun Chang, Knut Rudi, Lars Paulin, Vicki Hertzberg, Petri Auvinen, Malú G. Tansey and Filip Scheperjans

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2021 16:6

    Content type: Research article

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  40. Genome-wide association studies have established clusterin (CLU) as a genetic modifier for late-onset Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Both protective and risk alleles have been identified which may be associated wit...

    Authors: Fading Chen, Dan B. Swartzlander, Anamitra Ghosh, John D. Fryer, Baiping Wang and Hui Zheng

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2021 16:5

    Content type: Research article

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  41. Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a prevalent neurological disease in the elderly with increasing morbidity and mortality. Despite enormous efforts, rapid and accurate diagnosis of PD is still compromised. Metabolom...

    Authors: Yaping Shao, Tianbai Li, Zheyi Liu, Xiaolin Wang, Xiaojiao Xu, Song Li, Guowang Xu and Weidong Le

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2021 16:4

    Content type: Research article

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  42. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) provides basic mechanical and immunological protection to the brain. Historically, analysis of CSF has focused on protein changes, yet recent studies have shed light on cellular alter...

    Authors: Hamilton Oh, Olivia Leventhal, Divya Channappa, Victor W. Henderson, Tony Wyss-Coray, Benoit Lehallier and David Gate

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2021 16:3

    Content type: Methodology

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  43. Successful development of agents that improve cognition and behavior in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is critical to improving the lives of patients manifesting the symptoms of this progressive disorder.

    Authors: Jeffrey Cummings

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2021 16:2

    Content type: Review

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    The Correction to this article has been published in Molecular Neurodegeneration 2021 16:21

  44. TDP-43 proteinopathy is a pathological hallmark of many neurodegenerative diseases including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). So far, there is no therapy available for the...

    Authors: Sunny Kumar, Daniel Phaneuf, Pierre Cordeau Jr., Hejer Boutej, Jasna Kriz and Jean-Pierre Julien

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2021 16:1

    Content type: Research article

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