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  1. The central role of the resident innate immune cells of the brain (microglia) in neurodegeneration has become clear over the past few years largely through genome-wide association studies (GWAS), and has rapid...

    Authors: Lorenza Magno, Tom D. Bunney, Emma Mead, Fredrik Svensson and Magda N. Bictash

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2021 16:22

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  2. CD33 is genetically linked to Alzheimer’s disease (AD) susceptibility through differential expression of isoforms in microglia. The role of the human CD33 short isoform (hCD33m), preferentially encoded by an A...

    Authors: Abhishek Bhattacherjee, Jaesoo Jung, Sameera Zia, Madelene Ho, Ghazaleh Eskandari-Sedighi, Chris D. St. Laurent, Kelli A. McCord, Arjun Bains, Gaurav Sidhu, Susmita Sarkar, Jason R. Plemel and Matthew S. Macauley

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2021 16:19

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Recent studies suggest that microglia contribute to tau pathology progression in Alzheimer’s disease. Amyloid plaque accumulation transforms microglia, the primary innate immune cells in the brain, into neurod...

    Authors: Kevin Clayton, Jean Christophe Delpech, Shawn Herron, Naotoshi Iwahara, Maria Ericsson, Takashi Saito, Takaomi C. Saido, Seiko Ikezu and Tsuneya Ikezu

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2021 16:18

    Content type: Research article

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  4. The most common mutation in the Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 gene (LRRK2), G2019S, causes familial Parkinson’s Disease (PD) and renders the encoded protein kinase hyperactive. While targeting LRRK2 activity is...

    Authors: Jillian H. Kluss, Melissa Conti Mazza, Yan Li, Claudia Manzoni, Patrick A. Lewis, Mark R. Cookson and Adamantios Mamais

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2021 16:17

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Oxidative stress is a common cause of neurodegeneration and plays a central role in retinal degenerative diseases. Heme oxygenase-1 (HMOX1) is a redox-regulated enzyme that is induced in neurodegenerative dise...

    Authors: Huirong Li, Bo Liu, Lili Lian, Jiajia Zhou, Shengjin Xiang, Yifan Zhai, Yu Chen, Xiaoyin Ma, Wencan Wu and Ling Hou

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2021 16:16

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Emerging evidence indicates that impaired mitophagy-mediated clearance of defective mitochondria is a critical event in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathogenesis. Amyloid-beta (Aβ) metabolism and the microtubule-a...

    Authors: Vicente Roca-Agujetas, Elisabet Barbero-Camps, Cristina de Dios, Petar Podlesniy, Xenia Abadin, Albert Morales, Montserrat Marí, Ramon Trullàs and Anna Colell

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2021 16:15

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Before the deposition of amyloid-beta plaques and the onset of learning memory deficits, patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) experience olfactory dysfunction, typified by a reduced ability to detect, discri...

    Authors: Ming Chen, Yunan Chen, Qingwei Huo, Lei Wang, Shuyi Tan, Afzal Misrani, Jinxiang Jiang, Jian Chen, Shiyuan Chen, Jiawei Zhang, Sidra Tabassum, Jichen Wang, Xi Chen, Cheng Long and Li Yang

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2021 16:14

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Physiological disturbances in cortical network excitability and plasticity are established and widespread in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) patients, including those harb...

    Authors: Emma M. Perkins, Karen Burr, Poulomi Banerjee, Arpan R. Mehta, Owen Dando, Bhuvaneish T. Selvaraj, Daumante Suminaite, Jyoti Nanda, Christopher M. Henstridge, Thomas H. Gillingwater, Giles E. Hardingham, David J. A. Wyllie, Siddharthan Chandran and Matthew R. Livesey

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2021 16:13

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Inherited optic neuropathies are the most common mitochondrial diseases, leading to neurodegeneration involving the irreversible loss of retinal ganglion cells, optic nerve degeneration and central visual loss...

    Authors: Majida Charif, Yvette C. Wong, Soojin Kim, Agnès Guichet, Catherine Vignal, Xavier Zanlonghi, Philippe Bensaid, Vincent Procaccio, Dominique Bonneau, Patrizia Amati-Bonneau, Pascal Reynier, Dimitri Krainc and Guy Lenaers

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2021 16:12

    Content type: Short report

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  10. High-density oligomers of the prion protein (HDPs) have previously been identified in brain tissues of patients with rapidly progressive Alzheimer’s disease (rpAD). The current investigation aims at identifyin...

    Authors: Mohsin Shafiq, Saima Zafar, Neelam Younas, Aneeqa Noor, Berta Puig, Hermann Clemens Altmeppen, Matthias Schmitz, Jakob Matschke, Isidre Ferrer, Markus Glatzel and Inga Zerr

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2021 16:11

    Content type: Research article

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  11. We generated a mouse model of primary microglial dysfunction by deleting two negative immune regulatory genes, Cx3cr1 and Socs3 (in LysM+ cells). This study aimed to understand how primary microglial dysfunction ...

    Authors: Xuan Du, Rosana Penalva, Karis Little, Adrien Kissenpfennig, Mei Chen and Heping Xu

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2021 16:9

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is among the most prevalent neurodegenerative diseases, with brain pathology defined by extracellular amyloid beta deposits and intracellular tau aggregates. To aid in research efforts...

    Authors: Brittany S. Ulm, David R. Borchelt and Brenda D. Moore

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2021 16:8

    Content type: Review

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  13. Strokes are becoming less severe due to increased numbers of intensive care units and improved treatments. As patients survive longer, post-stroke cognitive impairment (PSCI) has become a major health public i...

    Authors: Adrien Cogo, Gabrielle Mangin, Benjamin Maïer, Jacques Callebert, Mikael Mazighi, Hughes Chabriat, Jean-Marie Launay, Gilles Huberfeld and Nathalie Kubis

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2021 16:7

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Previous studies have reported that gut microbiota, permeability, short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), and inflammation are altered in Parkinson’s disease (PD), but how these factors are linked and how they contri...

    Authors: Velma T. E. Aho, Madelyn C. Houser, Pedro A. B. Pereira, Jianjun Chang, Knut Rudi, Lars Paulin, Vicki Hertzberg, Petri Auvinen, Malú G. Tansey and Filip Scheperjans

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2021 16:6

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Genome-wide association studies have established clusterin (CLU) as a genetic modifier for late-onset Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Both protective and risk alleles have been identified which may be associated wit...

    Authors: Fading Chen, Dan B. Swartzlander, Anamitra Ghosh, John D. Fryer, Baiping Wang and Hui Zheng

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2021 16:5

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a prevalent neurological disease in the elderly with increasing morbidity and mortality. Despite enormous efforts, rapid and accurate diagnosis of PD is still compromised. Metabolom...

    Authors: Yaping Shao, Tianbai Li, Zheyi Liu, Xiaolin Wang, Xiaojiao Xu, Song Li, Guowang Xu and Weidong Le

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2021 16:4

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) provides basic mechanical and immunological protection to the brain. Historically, analysis of CSF has focused on protein changes, yet recent studies have shed light on cellular alter...

    Authors: Hamilton Oh, Olivia Leventhal, Divya Channappa, Victor W. Henderson, Tony Wyss-Coray, Benoit Lehallier and David Gate

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2021 16:3

    Content type: Methodology

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  18. Successful development of agents that improve cognition and behavior in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is critical to improving the lives of patients manifesting the symptoms of this progressive disorder.

    Authors: Jeffrey Cummings

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2021 16:2

    Content type: Review

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    The Correction to this article has been published in Molecular Neurodegeneration 2021 16:21

  19. TDP-43 proteinopathy is a pathological hallmark of many neurodegenerative diseases including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). So far, there is no therapy available for the...

    Authors: Sunny Kumar, Daniel Phaneuf, Pierre Cordeau Jr., Hejer Boutej, Jasna Kriz and Jean-Pierre Julien

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2021 16:1

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide in the brain is a pathological hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The clusterin (CLU) gene confers a risk for AD and CLU is highly upregulated in AD patients, with the co...

    Authors: Aleksandra M. Wojtas, Jonathon P. Sens, Silvia S. Kang, Kelsey E. Baker, Taylor J. Berry, Aishe Kurti, Lillian Daughrity, Karen R. Jansen-West, Dennis W. Dickson, Leonard Petrucelli, Guojun Bu, Chia-Chen Liu and John D. Fryer

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2020 15:71

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Tau pathology is a major age-related event in Down syndrome with Alzheimer’s disease (DS-AD). Although recently, several different Tau PET tracers have been developed as biomarkers for AD, these tracers showed...

    Authors: L. Lemoine, A. Ledreux, E. J. Mufson, S. E. Perez, G. Simic, E. Doran, I. Lott, S. Carroll, K. Bharani, S. Thomas, A. Gilmore, E. D. Hamlett, A. Nordberg and A. C. Granholm

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2020 15:68

    Content type: Research article

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  22. The neurovascular unit (NVU) – the interaction between the neurons and the cerebrovasculature – is increasingly important to interrogate through human-based experimental models. Although advanced models of cer...

    Authors: Jerome Robert, Nicholas L. Weilinger, Li-Ping Cao, Stefano Cataldi, Emily B. Button, Sophie Stukas, Emma M. Martin, Philip Seibler, Megan Gilmour, Tara M. Caffrey, Elyn M. Rowe, Jianjia Fan, Brian MacVicar, Matthew J. Farrer and Cheryl L. Wellington

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2020 15:70

    Content type: Research article

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  23. The activity of γ-secretase is critical to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). How its activity is regulated is intriguing and highly important for any AD therapy that focuses on reduction of toxic a...

    Authors: Annie Y. Yao and Riqiang Yan

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2020 15:69

    Content type: Commentary

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  24. Late-onset Alzheimer’s disease (LOAD) is the most common form of dementia worldwide. To date, animal models of Alzheimer’s have focused on rare familial mutations, due to a lack of frank neuropathology from mo...

    Authors: Christoph Preuss, Ravi Pandey, Erin Piazza, Alexander Fine, Asli Uyar, Thanneer Perumal, Dylan Garceau, Kevin P. Kotredes, Harriet Williams, Lara M. Mangravite, Bruce T. Lamb, Adrian L. Oblak, Gareth R. Howell, Michael Sasner, Benjamin A. Logsdon and Gregory W. Carter

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2020 15:67

    Content type: Methodology

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  25. Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disease and type 2 diabetes (T2D) plays an important role in conferring the risk for AD. Although AD and T2D share common features, the common mole...

    Authors: Teemu Natunen, Henna Martiskainen, Mikael Marttinen, Sami Gabbouj, Hennariikka Koivisto, Susanna Kemppainen, Satu Kaipainen, Mari Takalo, Helena Svobodová, Luukas Leppänen, Benjam Kemiläinen, Simo Ryhänen, Teemu Kuulasmaa, Eija Rahunen, Sisko Juutinen, Petra Mäkinen…

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2020 15:66

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  26. A defining pathological hallmark of the progressive neurodegenerative disorder Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the accumulation of misfolded tau with abnormal post-translational modifications (PTMs). These include...

    Authors: Sanjib Guha, Sarah Fischer, Gail V. W. Johnson and Keith Nehrke

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2020 15:65

    Content type: Research article

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  27. The spread of tau pathology in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is mediated by cell-to-cell transmission of pathological tau seeds released from neurons that, upon internalization by recipient neurons, template the mi...

    Authors: Garrett S. Gibbons, Soo-Jung Kim, Qihui Wu, Dawn M. Riddle, Susan N. Leight, Lakshmi Changolkar, Hong Xu, Emily S. Meymand, Mia O’Reilly, Bin Zhang, Kurt R. Brunden, John Q. Trojanowski and Virginia M. Y. Lee

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2020 15:64

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Investigations of apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene, the major genetic risk modifier for Alzheimer’s disease (AD), have yielded significant insights into the pathogenic mechanism. Among the three common coding variant...

    Authors: Zonghua Li, Francis Shue, Na Zhao, Mitsuru Shinohara and Guojun Bu

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2020 15:63

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  29. Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2) is expressed in the brain exclusively on microglia and genetic variants are linked to neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer’s disease (AD), fro...

    Authors: Vaishnavi S. Jadhav, Peter B. C. Lin, Taylor Pennington, Gonzalo Viana Di Prisco, Asha Jacob Jannu, Guixiang Xu, Miguel Moutinho, Jie Zhang, Brady K. Atwood, Shweta S. Puntambekar, Stephanie J. Bissel, Adrian L. Oblak, Gary E. Landreth and Bruce T. Lamb

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2020 15:62

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is an adult-onset mental disorder with aging as a major risk factor. Early and progressive degeneration of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons (BFCNs) contributes substantially to cogn...

    Authors: Shuaipeng Ma, Tong Zang, Meng-Lu Liu and Chun-Li Zhang

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2020 15:61

    Content type: Methodology

    Published on:

  31. Three amino acid differences between rodent and human APP affect medically important features, including β-secretase cleavage of APP and Aβ peptide aggregation (De Strooper et al., EMBO J 14:4932-38, 1995; Uen...

    Authors: Lutgarde Serneels, Dries T’Syen, Laura Perez-Benito, Tom Theys, Matthew G. Holt and Bart De Strooper

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2020 15:60

    Content type: Short report

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  32. Parkinson's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by the loss of dopaminergic neurons of the nigrostriatal pathway and the formation of neuronal inclusions known as Lewy bodies. Chro...

    Authors: Karim Belarbi, Elodie Cuvelier, Marie-Amandine Bonte, Mazarine Desplanque, Bernard Gressier, David Devos and Marie-Christine Chartier-Harlin

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2020 15:59

    Content type: Review

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  33. Motor neuron diseases (MNDs) are etiologically and biologically heterogeneous diseases. The pathobiology of motor neuron degeneration is still largely unknown, and no effective therapy is available. Heterogene...

    Authors: Elisabetta Zucchi, Valentina Bonetto, Gianni Sorarù, Ilaria Martinelli, Piero Parchi, Rocco Liguori and Jessica Mandrioli

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2020 15:58

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  34. The Apolipoprotein E ε4 allele (i.e. ApoE4) is the strongest genetic risk factor for sporadic Alzheimer’s disease (AD). TREM2 (i.e. Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2) is a microglial transmembra...

    Authors: Nicolai Franzmeier, M. Suárez-Calvet, Lukas Frontzkowski, Annah Moore, Timothy J. Hohman, Estrella Morenas-Rodriguez, Brigitte Nuscher, Leslie Shaw, John Q. Trojanowski, Martin Dichgans, Gernot Kleinberger, Christian Haass and Michael Ewers

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2020 15:57

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Tau neurofibrillary tangle pathology characterizes Alzheimer’s disease and other neurodegenerative tauopathies. Brain gene expression profiles can reveal mechanisms; however, few studies have systematically ex...

    Authors: Carl Grant Mangleburg, Timothy Wu, Hari K. Yalamanchili, Caiwei Guo, Yi-Chen Hsieh, Duc M. Duong, Eric B. Dammer, Philip L. De Jager, Nicholas T. Seyfried, Zhandong Liu and Joshua M. Shulman

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2020 15:56

    Content type: Research article

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  36. Subjective cognitive decline (SCD) is regarded as the first clinical manifestation in the Alzheimer’s disease (AD) continuum. Investigating populations with SCD is important for understanding the early patholo...

    Authors: Xiaoqi Wang, Weijie Huang, Li Su, Yue Xing, Frank Jessen, Yu Sun, Ni Shu and Ying Han

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2020 15:55

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  37. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Xue Wang, Mariet Allen, Shaoyu Li, Zachary S. Quicksall, Tulsi A. Patel, Troy P. Carnwath, Joseph S. Reddy, Minerva M. Carrasquillo, Sarah J. Lincoln, Thuy T. Nguyen, Kimberly G. Malphrus, Dennis W. Dickson, Julia E. Crook, Yan W. Asmann and Nilüfer Ertekin-Taner

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2020 15:54

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in Molecular Neurodegeneration 2020 15:38

  38. Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most frequent and costly neurodegenerative disorder. Although diverse lines of evidence suggest that the amyloid precursor protein (APP) is involved in its causation, the precis...

    Authors: Erik C. B. Johnson, Kaitlyn Ho, Gui-Qiu Yu, Melanie Das, Pascal E. Sanchez, Biljana Djukic, Isabel Lopez, Xinxing Yu, Michael Gill, Weiping Zhang, Jeanne T. Paz, Jorge J. Palop and Lennart Mucke

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2020 15:53

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  39. Microglia-specific genetic variants are enriched in several neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD), implicating a central role for alterations of the innate immune system in the disease...

    Authors: Mari Takalo, Rebekka Wittrahm, Benedikt Wefers, Samira Parhizkar, Kimmo Jokivarsi, Teemu Kuulasmaa, Petra Mäkinen, Henna Martiskainen, Wolfgang Wurst, Xianyuan Xiang, Mikael Marttinen, Pekka Poutiainen, Annakaisa Haapasalo, Mikko Hiltunen and Christian Haass

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2020 15:52

    Content type: Short report

    Published on:

  40. Pathological forms of TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) are present in motor neurons of almost all amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients, and mutations in TDP-43 are also present in ALS. Loss and gain...

    Authors: Anna Konopka, Donna R. Whelan, Md Shafi Jamali, Emma Perri, Hamideh Shahheydari, Reka P. Toth, Sonam Parakh, Tina Robinson, Alison Cheong, Prachi Mehta, Marta Vidal, Audrey M. G. Ragagnin, Ivan Khizhnyak, Cyril J. Jagaraj, Jasmin Galper, Natalie Grima…

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2020 15:51

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  41. Disruption of β-amyloid (Aβ) homeostasis is the initial culprit in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathogenesis. Astrocytes respond to emerging Aβ plaques by altering their phenotype and function, yet molecular mecha...

    Authors: Joanna E. Pankiewicz, Jenny R. Diaz, Mitchell Martá-Ariza, Anita M. Lizińczyk, Leor A. Franco and Martin J. Sadowski

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2020 15:50

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  42. α-Synuclein (aSyn) aggregation is thought to play a central role in neurodegenerative disorders termed synucleinopathies, including Parkinson’s disease (PD). Mouse aSyn contains a threonine residue at position...

    Authors: Natalie Landeck, Katherine E. Strathearn, Daniel Ysselstein, Kerstin Buck, Sayan Dutta, Siddhartha Banerjee, Zhengjian Lv, John D. Hulleman, Jagadish Hindupur, Li-Kai Lin, Sonal Padalkar, Lia A. Stanciu, Yuri L. Lyubchenko, Deniz Kirik and Jean-Christophe Rochet

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2020 15:49

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  43. Glaucoma is a leading neurodegenerative disease affecting over 70 million individuals worldwide. Early pathological events of axonal degeneration and retinopathy in response to elevated intraocular pressure (I...

    Authors: Prabhavathi Maddineni, Ramesh B. Kasetti, Pinkal D. Patel, J. Cameron Millar, Charles Kiehlbauch, Abbot F. Clark and Gulab S. Zode

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2020 15:48

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  44. Neuronal accumulation of misfolded microtubule-associated protein tau is a hallmark of neuropathology in Alzheimer’s disease, frontotemporal dementia, and other tauopathies, and has been a therapeutic target. ...

    Authors: Zhi Ruan, Jean-Christophe Delpech, Srinidhi Venkatesan Kalavai, Alicia A. Van Enoo, Jianqiao Hu, Seiko Ikezu and Tsuneya Ikezu

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2020 15:47

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  45. Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the major cause of death in adults with Down syndrome (DS). There is an urgent need for objective markers of AD in the DS population to improve early diagnosis and monitor disease p...

    Authors: Olivia Belbin, Mei-Fang Xiao, Desheng Xu, Maria Carmona-Iragui, Jordi Pegueroles, Bessy Benejam, Laura Videla, Susana Fernández, Isabel Barroeta, Raúl Nuñez-Llaves, Victor Montal, Eduard Vilaplana, Miren Altuna, Jordi Clarimón, Daniel Alcolea, Rafael Blesa…

    Citation: Molecular Neurodegeneration 2020 15:46

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

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