Treatment of SH-SY5Y cells with different mitochondrial inhibitors did not induce TDP-43 aggregation. Cells were treated with vehicle control (A-C), 0.075 mM rotenone (D-F), 1 mM 3-NP (G-I), 2 mM MPP+ (J-L), 5 mM sodium azide (M-O) or 1 mM paraquat (P-R). Cells were analyzed for TDP-43 localization by immunofluorescence. Green = TDP-43, blue = DAPI. C, F, I, L, O and R represent merged images of adjacent TDP-43 and DAPI panels to the left. Arrows indicate TDP-43 SGs in paraquat-treated cells. Bar = 10 μm. Representative images from three separate experiments performed in duplicate or triplicate.