Confirmation of the differential expression of B cell-related genes. Quantitative Real-Time RT-PCR analyses were performed to confirm the expression changes in CD19, CD22, CD79A, IGHD, IGHM and PAX5 genes (A-F). SNCA gene expression was used as a negative control (G). Each transcript's expression level was normalized to the geometric mean of GUSB and TBP expression levels (H). Graphs in column I (AI-HI, Two-way ANOVA, followed by Tukey post hoc) represent the combined analysis of men and women (79 samples). Each analysis included a group of sex- and age-matched healthy controls, and three groups of patients: PD-patients that did not receive anti-Parkinson medications at time of enrollment (naïve-PD), PD-patients with short disease duration (PD-SDD) and PD-patients with long disease duration (PD-LDD). Each of these four groups included both women and men in a 1:1 ratio. Graphs in columns II and III (AII-HII and AIII-HIII, One-way ANOVA, followed by Tukey post hoc) represent the separate analysis of women (40 samples) or men (39 samples), respectively. For all gene analyses, bold numbers in AI-AIII represent the number of individuals tested. Bars represent mean ± SEM. Significant P-values are indicated between the tested groups as follows: black solid lines represent P < 0.0005, black dashed lines represent P < 0.005 and grey solid lines represent P < 0.05. Statistical significances were detected (Two-way ANOVA) for both gender and group parameters (#) and for gender and group parameters, as well as the interaction between them (*).