Mitochondrial visualization in Thy1-mitoDsRed2 tg mouse CNS. A. Tg mice showed DsRed fluorescence in somatosensory cortex with varying intensities in different cortical layers. Scale bar = 70 μm (same for B). B. Non-tg mice have no red fluorescence in somatosensory cortex. C. Tg mice showed DsRed fluorescence in hippocampus. All layers of CA1 were fluorescent, including stratum oriens (so), stratum pyramidale (sp), stratum radiatum (sr), and stratum lacunosum-moleculare (sl), with the sl showing the highest intensity; the dentate gyrus (DG) showed lower DsRed fluorescence compared to CA1. The granule cell layer of DG was nearly negative. Inset shows colocalization (orange-yellow) of DsRed fluorescence with VDAC (green) in a CA1 pyramidal neuron cell body. Nuclei are blue. Scale bars = 47 μm (inset, 4 μm). D. Tg mice showed DsRed fluorescence in ventrobasal complex of thalamus. Scale bar = 70 μm. E. Tg mice showed DsRed fluorescence in subthalamic nucleus, while nearby cerebral peduncle and lateral hypothalamus showed very low fluorescence. Scale bar = 70 μm. F. Spinal cord gray matter showed DsRed fluorescence in tg mice. White hatched boxes in dorsal horn and ventral delineate regions shown at higher magnification in G and H. Scale bar = 100 μm. G. Colocalization (orange-yellow) of DsRed fluorescence with VDAC (green) in dorsal horn neurons. Cell nuclei are blue. Scale bar = 5 μm. H. Colocalization (orange-yellow, arrows) of DsRed fluorescence with VDAC (green) in motor neuron. Scale bar = 3 μm. Images are representative of numerous tg (n = 20) or control (n = 10) mice.