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Table 1 Relevant epidemiologic studies associating stress with increased risk of developing AD

From: Targeting psychologic stress signaling pathways in Alzheimer’s disease

Epidemiologic studies Description Results Comments
Andel et al. (2012) [11] Prospective study. Occupation used as a surrogate for stress level Correlation between markers of Job Stress (Low job control, High demands, Low social support, High job strain) in risk of developing any type of dementia (OR 1.06–1.23) or AD (OR 1.04–1.23) Study used only occupation of participant as surrogate for stress but did not survey participants directly about their stress levels.
Clinical Diagnosis (Dx) of AD
Kaup et al. (2016) [7] Prospective study. Elderly participants (Mean age 74) were assessed for depressive symptoms yearly for 5 years and then observed for an additional 11 years for onset of dementia Patients found to have High and increasing symptoms were significantly more likely to develop any type of dementia (OR 1.94) Clinical Dx of AD
Tsolaki et al. (2010) [12] Retrospective Case–control study of patients with dementia and without. Found that 78% of those with dementia had a stressful life event prior to onset of dementia while only 55% of the control subjects encountered a stressful life event. AD (OR 2.24) Clinical Dx of AD
Wilson et al. (2003) [8] Prospective study as part of the larger Religious Orders study of catholic nuns and priests, measuring stress proneness and incident AD. Participants receiving the highest scores in the neuroticism scale used for a marker of stress proneness were twice as likely to develop AD within the 4.9 year average follow-up.  
Johansson et al. (2014) [9] Prospective study examining stress levels of women at three examinations over 35 years. Hazard ratio for incident dementia were 1.1 (.71–1.71) reporting stress at 1/3 examinations, 1.73 (1.01–2.95) at 2/3 examinations, and 2.51 (1.33–4.77) at 3/3 examinations. Clinical Dx of AD