Skip to main content

Table 1 Clinical studies finding associations between metabolic diseases or risk factors and ALS/ FTLD risk or prognosis

From: Disease-modifying effects of metabolic perturbations in ALS/FTLD

Metabolic condition Evidence supporting a beneficial effect on risk/prognosis of ALS Evidence not supporting a beneficial effect on risk/ prognosis of ALS Citation, sample size (n)
Dyslipidemia Increased survival in ALS by 12.5 months N/A Dupuis et al. [47] (n = 369 ALS, n = 286 controls)
Increased survival in ALS by 14 months Dorst et al. [44] (n = 488 ALS)
Increased survival in ALS by 5.8 months Huang et al. [70] (n = 413 ALS)
Delay in ALS onset by almost 6 years Hollinger et al. [67] (n = 1439 ALS)
N/A Increased survival in ALS confounded by BMI Paganoni et al. [124] (n = 427 ALS)
Increased survival in ALS confounded by age and BMI Rafiq et al. [140] (n = 512 ALS)
Increased survival in ALS not significant Dedic et al. [35] (n = 82 ALS)
T2DM Delay in ALS onset by 4 years N/A Jawaid et al. [75, 76] (n = 2371 ALS)
Decreased risk of ALS in non-insulin dependent T2DM Mariosa et al. [105] (n = 5108 ALS, n = 25,540 controls)
Decreased prevalence of T2DM in ALS Paganoni et al. [125]
Decreased prevalence of T2DM in ALS Mitchell et al. [111] (n = 1288 ALS, n = 7561 controls)
Decreased risk of ALS in people with DM D’Ovidio et al. [32] (n = 727,977)
N/A No association between T2DM and ALS risk Sun et al. [165] (n = 615,492 diabetics, n = 614,835 controls)
Increased mortality in ALS patients with high baseline HbA1c Wei et al. [182]
(n = 450 ALS)
High BMI Increase in BMI slowed functional decline in ALS N/A Jawaid et al. [75, 76] (n = 285 ALS)
High BMI slowed progression and decreased mortality in ALS Gallo et al. [56] (n = 518,108 over-all)
Reich-Slotky et al. [141] (n = 150 ALS)
Cardiovascular diseases Decreased risk of FTLD N/A Kalkonde et al. [80] (n = 63 FTD, n = 491 non-FTD dementias)
  1. Abbreviations: BMI body mass index, T2DM type 2 diabetes mellitus, N/A not applicable