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Fig. 3 | Molecular Neurodegeneration

Fig. 3

From: Glycosphingolipids and neuroinflammation in Parkinson’s disease

Fig. 3

Biosynthetic and degradation pathways of glycosphingolipids in the brain. The nomenclature for gangliosides and the components are based on those of Svennerholm [23] and IUPAC-IUBMB Joint Commission on Biochemical Nomenclature [24]. Official Gene symbol and Full Name are from HUGO (http://www.genenames.org/. Accessed June 28 2019). Glycosphingolipids belonging to the asialo-series, ganglio-series, lacto/neo-lacto-series and globo/iso-globo-series are colored in brown, blue, purple and green, respectively. Lysosomal glycosphingolipid storage disorders resulting from an enzyme defect are indicated in brackets and in red in the figure. The abbreviations are as follows: A4GALT alpha 1,4-galactosyltransferase (22q13.2); ARSA arylsulfatase A (22q13.33); B3GALT4 beta-1,3-galactosyltransferase 4 (6p21.32); B4GALNT1 beta-1,4-N-acetyl-galactosaminyltransferase 1 (12q13.3); B4GALT6 beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase 6 (18q12.1); GAL3ST1 galactose-3-O-sulfotransferase 1 (22q12.2); GALC galactosylceramidase (14q31.3); GBA glucosylceramidase beta also named GBA1 (1q22); GBA2 glucosylceramidase beta 2 (9p13.3); GBA3 glucosylceramidase beta 3 (4p15.2); GLA galactosidase alpha Xq22.1; GLB1 galactosidase beta 1 (3p22.3); HEXA hexosaminidase subunit alpha (15q23); HEXB hexosaminidase subunit beta (5q13.3); NEU1 neuraminidase 1 (6p21.33); NEU2 neuraminidase 2 (2q37.1); NEU3 neuraminidase 3 (11q13.5); NEU4 neuraminidase 4( 2q37.3); ST3GAL1 ST3 beta-galactoside alpha-2,3-sialyltransferase 1 (8q24.22); ST3GAL2 ST3 beta-galactoside alpha-2,3-sialyltransferase 2 (16q22.1); ST3GAL5 ST3 beta-galactoside alpha-2,3-sialyltransferase 5 (2p11.2); ST3GAL6 ST3 beta-galactoside alpha-2,3-sialyltransferase 6 (3q12.1); ST6GALNAC6 ST6 N-acetylgalactosaminide alpha-2,6-sialyltransferase 6 (9q34.11); ST8SIA1 ST8 alpha-N-acetyl-neuraminide alpha-2,8-sialyltransferase 1 (12p12.1); ST8SIA3 ST8 alpha-N-acetyl-neuraminide alpha-2,8-sialyltransferase 3 (ST8SIA3, 18q21.31); ST8SIA5 ST8 alpha-N-acetyl-neuraminide alpha-2,8-sialyltransferase 5 (18q21.1); UGCG UDP-glucose ceramide glucosyltransferase (9q31.3); UGT8 UDP glycosyltransferase 8 (4q26)

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