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Table 1 Demographic and Clinical Details of Subjects

From: Relationships of gut microbiota, short-chain fatty acids, inflammation, and the gut barrier in Parkinson’s disease

  Control subjects PD patients p-value
Number of Subjects 56 55  
Sex (% Male) 48.21 52.73 0.706
Age at stool collection (mean ± SD) 66.38 ± 6.73 67.63 ± 5.21 0.293
Body Mass Index (mean ± SD) 26.7 ± 3.56 27.63 ± 4.74 0.261
History of TIA/ischemic stroke (%) 37.50 5.56 <  0.001
Medication: ACE-inhibitor or AT1 antagonist (% yes) 48.21 29.09 0.051
Medication: calcium channel blocker (% yes) 19.64 5.45 0.042
Medication: statin (% yes) 48.21 18.18 0.001
Levodopa equivalent daily dose (LEDD mg; mean ± SD) 0 ± 0 608.61 ± 301.46 <  0.001
Non-Motor Symptoms Scale (NMSS) total (mean ± SD) 7.09 ± 6.35 48.36 ± 36.55 <  0.001
Rome III constipation subscore (items 9–15; mean ± SD) 2.46 ± 3.16 7.45 ± 5.22 <  0.001
Rome III irritable bowel syndrome criteria fulfilled (%) 7.14 36.36 <  0.001
  1. p-values reflect Fisher’s exact test, SD standard deviation, TIA transient ischemic attack, ACE Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme, AT1 angiotensin II type 1.